Wood milling machine with your own hands: step-by-step manufacturing technology
From this article, you can learn how to make a wood milling machine at home with your own hands to perform basic operations with workpieces. The text describes a step-by-step technology for creating a tool: an analysis of the design features of the device and all the components necessary for its installation, drawings with dimensions and detailed descriptions that will help create each of these elements and put them together.
Wood milling machine with your own hands: design specificity
Milling machines for wood can have different purposes. Some devices are designed to perform only one operation, others are multifunctional. Buying a professional tool is an expensive pleasure, so many craftsmen resort to making a machine on wood with their own hands. Most often, such a milling cutter is used in small furniture workshops.
Milling cutters are usually used for processing wood along a straight or curved contour. The knife head acts as a working element in the design, which performs rotational movements. In most cases, this part is positioned vertically. There are many varieties of milling cutters, each of which has its own design features.
The most popular types of devices:
- standard single-spindle (the spindle is positioned vertically);
- single-spindle designs where the spindle or homemade milling table tilts;
- copy milling cutters with a spindle having an upper placement;
- copying structures with a spindle having horizontal placement (the tool is designed for processing propellers made of wood).
Pay attention! In all listed constructions, except the last one, the material is fed manually.
The device of the milling machine: single-spindle designs
The design of the single-spindle machine includes a horizontal table with a pair of tongue-and-groove sockets designed to fix the guide lines. It is mounted on a cast iron frame. Under the table there are sleds that move along the guides. They have a spindle mounted on a support and a pair of bearings. In the upper part of this element there is another spindle – plug-in. It is designed for mounting cutting parts.
The slide with the spindle can be lifted if necessary. To do this, a bevel gear with a handwheel or a screw is used. Belt drive allows you to drive the spindle. Moreover, a counter drive, motor or motor shaft can be used for this.
To make such a wood cutter with your own hands, you need to take into account some nuances. In some cases, it is impossible to do without additional reinforcement of the spindle. Such a need arises if it is necessary to process workpieces of great height or serious loads affect the part. To do this, you need to install and fix the upper stop on the machine table. This element is fixed on the bracket. To control the movement of the workpiece during milling, it is advisable to use a guide ring or ruler.
Machines in which the spindle or table is tilted allow you to perform a wider range of woodwork with your own hands. In addition to standard operations, such designs allow you to get a higher quality of processing, getting a clean and uniform surface. This result can be achieved by processing wood at an angle using cutters with a very small diameter. A device with a tilting spindle is much safer and more convenient.
The device of a homemade copying machine on wood with the upper placement of the spindle
These devices are used to perform copying work. At the same time, high power is not required. Such designs allow you to perform milling and drilling work to create openwork products.
The copier is able to replace three tools at once:
Wood processing is carried out using cutting cutters. The spindle develops a large number of revolutions, so that the treated surface is very clean.
Homemade woodworking machine can be used for various purposes:
- calibration of bosses;
- manufacture of openwork frames;
- study of the walls of the ribs, etc.
A frame made of cast iron is used as the basis for such a structure. Its upper part is curved in the shape of a sickle. This area is used for the installation of an electric motor.
Pay attention! The bed performs the function of a connecting link, on which all the elements of a homemade milling machine are installed on wood. The stronger and more reliable its design, the better.
The motor is mounted on rails. Due to the lever system, it can move down and up these elements. This section is set in motion by pressing the pedal, which is equipped with a special stopper. The rotary shaft of the motor is connected to the spindle, where the chuck with the tool is fixed. This cartridge can be self-centering or American.
In the lower area of the frame, a table is mounted on a movable bracket. This design can move vertically along the guides using a handwheel. There are other options for making a homemade milling machine on wood with your own hands, the drawing of such a design assumes vertical movement of the table also during operation by pressing the pedal. In such models, the electric motor and the spindle remain stationary.
How to make a wood lathe with your own hands: drawings and technology
The easiest way to make a tool yourself at home is to construct a lathe or a milling cutter from a drill or an electric motor removed from another tool. This process is not so complicated, so every master is able to cope with its implementation. This will require an electric motor, whose power does not exceed 500 watts, and improvised materials. A drill can also be used as a drive. Of course, making a lathe will require some skills.
The following elements are required for the construction of the machine:
- metal frame;
- electric motor;
- elbow rest;
It does not hurt to get a drawing that will help you navigate the dimensions and correctly produce all the elements of the structure for its subsequent assembly.
How to make a homemade drilling machine with your own hands with a motor
First you need to prepare the electric motor shaft. To do this, a faceplate is installed on it, a steel center with a thread is also suitable. Installation of the second center is carried out in the tailstock tube. To make the frame, you will need a pair of corners measuring 5×3 cm, their length is 15 cm. The motor is attached to the frame by means of a bolted connection.
Pay attention! The central part of the tailstock must necessarily coincide with the middle of the electric motor shaft.
At the next stage of making a homemade machine, the headstock is assembled with your own hands. This element is formed from a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical corners. A pipe designed for the spindle is attached to it. You need to insert a bolt into it, the diameter of which is 1.2 cm. Previously, its head is sharpened at a right angle. Thus, the central part of the spindle is designated. After that, the headstock is installed on the bed. On the upper rack, which connects to the horizontal corners, it is necessary to fix the tube by welding.
To make an assistant, you need to take a steel rod with a chamfer. Also, this element must have a hole that will be used to secure the support ruler. It is necessary to vertically weld the tube with a locking screw to the long corner. Then the rod of the helper is inserted into it.
The motor rotor, on which the faceplate is fixed, will be used as the headstock spindle. You need to make several holes in it. A plug will be inserted in the central part. The holes on the edges are designed to fix the part with screws.
How to make a wood lathe with your own hands from a drill
Having a workbench with a solid and smooth working surface at hand, you can build a lathe without resorting to the construction of a bed. In this case, an electric drill will perform the function of a rotary drive and a headstock. According to the simplest drawing of the machine, it is enough to fix this tool on the surface of the workbench through the neck. Clamps and a clamp are suitable for fixing.
Next, you need to make an emphasis that will act as a tailstock.
This element is mounted opposite the drill. To create it, you can take two bars of wood and an adjustment screw, sharpened at one end under the cone. If the machine is supposed to be used for processing massive wooden blanks, it is desirable to fix the emphasis on the table with clamps.
Inexpensive materials are enough to make a tool with your own hands. A drill-based lathe can be used to grind various parts:
- door handles;
- structural details of the stairs;
- decorative items, etc.
Pay attention! The machine with a wooden clamp is suitable exclusively for processing wood blanks. It is not allowed to use such a tool for working with metal.
To expand the functionality of the tool, its design can be supplemented with nozzles and other devices that can improve the quality of work.
Such improvements include:
- performing winding on transformers;
- applying a coloring compound over a rotating part to create patterns;
- applying spiral notches to the workpiece, etc.
Installing a special prefix in the form of a copier will allow you to use the machine to create a whole series of identical parts or products according to a template.
How to make a wood milling machine with your own hands: drawings, videos, instructions
This category of instrument includes several varieties. Before making a milling machine, you need to think through all the details in advance:
To work with complex elements, you will need a milling machine with a high power level and a large number of revolutions. Experts recommend giving preference to devices with manual spindle adjustment and automatic stabilization. Functions such as quick stop and smooth start will be useful. In ideal designs, the disassembly of the tool body is not required to replace the brushes of the electric motor.
Manual wood milling cutter: features of the tool and its scope of application
Operating instructions. Component parts. Recommendations on the choice of designs and an overview of the best models.
The design of the milling cutter consists of the following elements:
- bed frames;
- parallel stop;
- feeding sled;
- a vacuum cleaner.
Useful advice! The recommended engine power for the machine is 2 kW or more. A tool with lower indicators will not be able to process blanks made of solid wood.
Selection of materials for the manufacture of a woodworking machine with your own hands
In order for the frame to be able to withstand high dynamic loads, it is desirable to use metal as a material for its manufacture. The most suitable option is a pipe with a square or rectangular cross section. It is allowed to use a massive metal corner.
The choice of such materials allows you to create a structure without using a welding machine. All elements are connected by bolts. The design is collapsible, which facilitates its transfer and transportation. In addition, using the appropriate drawing of the milling table, you can create adjustable legs with your own hands. Movable supports will allow you to adjust the machine horizontally.
The following materials are suitable for the manufacture of countertops:
- multilayer plywood sheets;
- planed board;
- MDF, OSB or chipboard.
The countertop must have a smooth surface. Any irregularities will affect the quality of work. In addition, it is necessary to exclude all factors that may cause scratches during the processing of workpieces.
When making a table for a milling cutter with your own hands, a flat surface can be achieved in several ways:
- finishing with plastic;
- careful fitting and polishing of planed boards;
- metal finish.
To make a milling cutter with your own hands, you can use an asynchronous or collector motor. The first option is quite unpretentious in operation and does not impose restrictions on the size of the cutters used. Among the disadvantages is the high noise level. The collector motor is more accessible, but its brushes wear out faster.
How to make devices for a milling cutter with your own hands
Homemade wood cutters are capable of efficiently processing wood, however, when in contact with hard materials, the cutting elements are quickly blunted. Therefore, the range of application of such parts is significantly limited.
To make a wood cutter with your own hands, you need to take a cylindrical workpiece and cut off half of its diameter in the area where the cutting zone will be located. After that, it is necessary to smooth out the resulting transition. From the cut part of the workpiece, you need to remove another 1/4 of the diameter and perform a similar operation. Then you should give the processed section of the cutter a rectangular shape. To do this, cut off its lower part. The thickness of the resulting working area should be 2-5 mm.
Useful advice! To cut a metal workpiece for a milling cutter, you can use a drill or a grinder, adapting this tool to perform this task. The cutting edge can be made using a sharpening machine.
Recommendations for making homemade wood cutters:
How to make a milling machine with your own hands
The simplest milling machine can be made according to the same principle as the turning tool described earlier. There are several ways to design the leading center of the structure.
In the first case, a steel tube with thin walls is mounted on the shaft. This method is considered the simplest, but it is not without drawbacks. The operator will not be able to process workpieces whose diameter is smaller than the inner section of the pipe. In addition, such a structure will not be able to be dismantled quickly if it becomes necessary.
In the second case, the workpiece will be attached to the faceplate. To do this, you can use screws, for which you first need to make holes. This method also has disadvantages. The diameter of the workpieces being processed is limited by the size of the faceplate. To simplify this process, you can make a special cartridge, although in this case it will not be possible to avoid some restrictions.
The rear center, which will be used to fix long workpieces, must be installed on the tailstock. The electric motor is mounted on the frame. In general, the simplest designs of turning and milling tools are similar in many ways. If you want to get a more functional device, you can make a CNC milling machine with your own hands, but this will require additional technical knowledge.
The technology of making a table for a milling cutter with your own hands with drawings
There are several design options that can be used to install a desktop CNC milling machine. Tables can be stationary or portable. In addition, there is also an aggregate variety. This design allows you to expand the surface of the table for the use of a milling cutter.
Most often, craftsmen prefer stationary structures with a metal frame. Dutch plywood is suitable as a material for the countertop.
Pay attention! When making a table for a manual milling cutter with your own hands, you must take into account the height of the person who will work behind it.
The list of necessary tools and materials includes:
- metal parts for the frame (pipe or corner);
- guides made of aluminum;
- axes for fixing the milling cutter;
- putty, as well as priming and coloring compounds;
- self-tapping screws;
- furniture bolts (60×6 mm);
- hex adjustment bolts with nuts (4 pcs.);
- finnish laminated plywood with moisture-resistant properties (sheet thickness 1.8 cm);
- material for making a parallel stop (plywood or boards);
- drill and drill set;
- screwdriver and electric jigsaw;
- welding machine;
- auxiliary devices (brushes, rags, spatula).
Having everything you need, you can easily make the design of the milling table with your own hands, video reviews of the technology, of which there are many on the web, will help you visually familiarize yourself with this process.
The technology of manufacturing a CNC machine with your own hands: drawings and assembly
A CNC milling machine differs from a conventional tool by having a program that controls its operation. In many videos, homemade machines are made on the basis of a beam with a rectangular cross section, which is fixed on the guides. The CNC milling machine is no exception. During the installation of the supporting structure, it is advisable not to use welded joints, fixing is better done with bolts.
The fact is that the welds are vulnerable to vibration, which is why over time the frame will undergo gradual destruction. As a result of changing the geometric dimensions, the equipment will lose its accuracy and processing quality. It is desirable that the drawing of the table provides for the possibility of moving the tool vertically. A helical transmission is suitable for these purposes. The rotational motion will be transmitted using a toothed belt.
The vertical axis is the most important element of the design. For its manufacture, you can use an aluminum plate. At the same time, it is very important that the dimensional parameters of the axis correspond to the dimensions of the future machine.
Useful advice! Using a muffle furnace, it is possible to cast a vertical axis from aluminum, taking into account the dimensions specified in the drawing.
The assembly of the machine should begin with the installation of two stepper type electric motors. They are installed behind the vertical axis directly on the housing. One motor will control the movements of the milling head horizontally, the other – vertically. Then you need to proceed to the installation of the remaining components of the structure.
The rotational motion will be transmitted to the nodal elements of the tool using belt gears. Before connecting the software control to the finished milling machine, it is necessary to check its operability and, if there are shortcomings, eliminate them. Many craftsmen use video reviews for assembling the machine with their own hands, where this process is discussed in detail.
Equipment for creating a CNC milling machine on wood with your own hands
To create a CNC milling machine at home, it is necessary to use stepper motors. They provide the ability to move the tool in 3 planes. To create a homemade machine, electric motors present in a matrix printer are ideal. It is necessary to make sure that the motors have sufficient power. In addition to the engines, steel rods will be required.
The matrix printer has only a couple of motors, and it will take three to create a milling cutter. Therefore, several old printing devices will be required. It is desirable that the motors have 5 control wires. Thanks to this, the functionality of the tool increases.
Other engine parameters are also important:
- degree of rotation in one step;
- winding resistance;
- voltage level.
A stud and nut will be required to assemble the drive. The size of these parts is selected taking into account the drawing. To secure the motor shaft and the stud, you can use a thick rubber winding from an electric cable. A nylon sleeve is suitable as a retainer, a screw should be inserted into it. As an auxiliary tool, you can use a drill and a file.
The tool will be managed by software. A mandatory element of the machine is the LPT port, which provides connection of the control system to the milling machine via electric motors. The quality of the components used to assemble the machine depends on its service life and the quality of the technological operations performed. Therefore, the choice of details should be approached thoroughly. When all the electronic components of the machine are installed and connected, all that remains is to download the drivers and software.
How much will it cost to buy a CNC milling machine: tool prices
If almost any master can handle the manufacture of a manual milling cutter and a stationary table, then assembling a CNC machine for many will seem an impossible task. Moreover, homemade structures do not have the capabilities that a factory-made tool can offer.
Useful advice! If it is intended to use a milling cutter to perform complex woodwork, it is better to give preference to factory designs that are precisely calibrated and have many functions.
Prices for them vary depending on the functionality, table size, power, manufacturer and other parameters.
Average prices for factory-made CNC milling machines:
|Name of the machine||Table length, mm||Price, rub.|
|RUIJIE RJ 1200||399200|
|WoodTec MH 1325||2500||496350|
Assembling a machine with software is a rather complicated process that requires certain skills and knowledge. This work cannot be done without a suitable drawing and the necessary details. Elements such as loops designed to transmit signals, stepper motors and microprocessor boards can be removed from outdated equipment or purchased online. Many online stores offer ready-made kits for assembling milling machines for home workshops.