Wood lathe: device, characteristics and overview of models
A wood lathe is a device with which the processing of wooden products is carried out. In its structure, it is similar to devices that are used for metal processing, however, there are functional differences. To choose a suitable mini-machine for a home workshop, it is necessary to study their structure, basic technical characteristics, as well as the model range.
Types of woodworking machines
To date, there are three main types of turning units for processing wooden blanks, depending on their purpose:
- industrial (for large enterprises);
- semi-professional (for small businesses);
- desktop (for household use).
Devices of the first type are characterized by high performance, so they are used for mass production of various products. From a functional point of view, they have no equal, since they are able to perform a large amount of work of various kinds in minimal time. The mass of such devices is not less than 200 kg, and the minimum power indicator is 1 kW.
Semi-professional machines used for small productions are characterized by smaller dimensions and, accordingly, weight. Their weight ranges from 40 to 90 kg, and the functionality is much less than that of industrial devices, but it is quite enough to meet the needs of a small workshop. The power indicator of such units varies from 0.5 to 1 kW.
Desktop devices are used exclusively for household purposes. As a rule, such a device is installed on a workbench or any other work surface and is used for processing single parts made of wood. The weight of a mini wood lathe does not exceed 20-40 kg, and the power indicator is always below 0.5 kW.
Pay attention! To choose a turning device, it is necessary first of all to start from its purpose, as well as the availability of individual functions.
Today you can find many varieties of turning devices for processing wood, which are used at home. They differ in their functionality, as well as a number of other characteristics. Let’s consider the most popular devices used by home craftsmen for processing wood blanks:
- milling machines;
- copying and milling;
- CNC devices.
Turning and milling machines on wood are used, as a rule, for boring grooves. Screw units are used for applying threads to the workpiece and obtaining parts for the cone. Devices equipped with a copier allow you to receive products of unusual shapes and perform work much faster and more accurately.
Special stencils are used in copiers. Planer machines allow you to plan the board. CNC wood lathes are automatic units that operate according to a given program.
The device of a lathe for a home workshop
Such mini-machines differ from metalworking lathes in that they do not require a cooling system. The power indicator of the woodworking unit is also less. This is due to the physical characteristics of the material that is processed on such equipment. Wood blanks are much better suited to grinding or turning, so it does not require a lot of power to work with them.
Units for home workshops take into account the possibility of regulating the speed of rotation. The main structural elements of this device, which relate to the functional part, are: cartridge and cutters.
The main function of the chuck for a wood lathe is to ensure reliable fixation of the workpiece, which has a certain cross–section indicator. In turn, the cutter is used for manual work on a mini-machine that does not have a caliper. As a rule, chisel units are used for the manufacture of various household utensils (for example, cuttings for shovels), as well as for the execution of simple blanks for painting.
The cartridge is fixed to the front assembly (headstock), which includes a gearbox. This important structural element of the machine is distinguished by a cam device.
Due to the presence of a cam mechanism, it becomes possible to securely fix the workpiece in the cartridge, and this is very important for normal operation. The cartridge is massive and is responsible for the exact change in the position of the workpiece during its processing. And also this device performs rotation of the processed wooden product.
The rear node includes a hole in the form of a cone. It is necessary to install the center, the function of which is to fix the wooden block. Often such a thrust unit is sold separately. It will not be difficult to buy the tailstock of a lathe, since there are many offers for its sale on the Internet.
Mini-machines are able to cope with a basic set of technical operations. Consider what can be done on wood lathes:
- execution of grooves;
- drilling holes;
Useful information! School models of machines that process wooden blanks are very popular in amateur workshops. Such units are recommended for performing the simplest tasks (trimming, turning), as well as for understanding the operation of such devices at the initial level. Over time, it becomes possible to use the acquired knowledge to work on more complex equipment.
Desktop wood lathe: technical specifications
Desktop machines for processing wooden blanks are compact devices that are capable of performing many technical operations. The mass of most units of this type does not exceed 18 kg, which allows you to easily install them on the work surface and change the place of work, depending on the need.
The power rating of such equipment ranges from 350 to 500 watts. The most powerful devices are used in small-scale production. The mass of such machines can reach 90 kg.
As for the speed of rotation, this parameter has a great influence on the quality of processing of wooden products. The minimum spindle speed range is 400, and the maximum reaches 3500 rpm. This indicator can be adjusted, depending on two factors, namely: the type of wood and the required processing accuracy in a particular case.
The best quality mini-wood machines are those that are produced by foreign manufacturers. The main advantage of imported devices is a higher power rating, which expands the operational capabilities of the equipment.
Features of the Proma DSO-1000 desktop Wood Lathe
This device is the most common today and is very popular among home craftsmen. The company manufacturing these units is located in the Czech Republic.
Such equipment is characterized by multitasking and is capable of performing many technological operations. The Proma DSO-1000 machine is used for processing products that consist not only of soft, but also of hard wood. The shape of the workpiece can be different:
- cone – shaped;
- shaped surface.
The woodworking unit of this model is equipped with copying equipment, and also includes a set of necessary tools that greatly simplify the processing of wood. The fixation of a functional part in such a machine is carried out by means of a cartridge.
The power rating of the Proma DSO-1000 is 400 watts. The minimum number of spindle revolutions per minute is 850, and the maximum is 2510. The rotation speed is adjustable, depending on the need. The length of the workpiece, which such an aggregate is capable of turning, is 1 m (35 cm above the bed).
This model weighs 35 kg, which affects its dimensions, which are compact and versatile. Before purchasing, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with the photos of the Proma DSO-1000 lathe, which can be easily found on the Internet.
And also Proma DSO-1000 has an affordable price. The price of this unit is only 6,500 rubles, which with such functionality is one of the best indicators on the modern market of turning equipment.
Wood cutting machine for home workshop HolzStar DB450
This model of woodworking machine for home use is mass-produced in China and has good quality characteristics. Another factor contributing to the popularity of the HolzStar DB450 mini-machine is a well–thought-out design.
Pay attention! The base of the HolzStar DB450 machine (bed) is made of cast iron material, which allows you to cope with unwanted vibration during operation. This increases the accuracy of processing wooden blocks.
The main advantage of such a wood lathe for a home workshop is considered to be the spindle speed. It is adjustable depending on the characteristics of the workpiece material and varies from 500 to 3150 rpm. In turn, the power indicator of the device is 370 watts.
A standard device of this type is capable of processing wooden products up to 45 cm long. However, if necessary, this parameter can be increased. To do this, you will need to purchase a bed extension, which increases the length of processing by 1 m. With such functionality, the mass of the device is only 38 kg. The HolzStar DB450 machine costs about 12,000 rubles.
Characteristics of the JET JWL-1220 wood lathe
Another model that is popular among consumers is the JET JWL-1220. JET woodworking machines are manufactured in America. From the above-described devices, such a machine differs in a higher cost, which is 18,500 rubles. (with standard equipment).
However, such a cost is fully justified, since, from a functional point of view, the JET JWL-1220 machine is ahead of previous models. The power indicator of such a unit is 750 watts, and its engine can operate in two modes and has 6 speeds. When the machine is operating in the first mode, the spindle speed varies from 400 to 3300 rpm. And when the second mode is turned on, the speed increases to 500-3900 rpm.
The bed of this small lathe is made of gray cast iron. It differs from black in that it has increased strength to mechanical damage (impacts). Some functional parts of the JET JWL-1220 are also made of this material, so they are more resistant to wear.
And it is also worth saying that JET JWL-1220 is equipped with a special locking lever, which makes it easier to attach the device to the work surface. The complete set also includes rubber feet, which make it possible to exclude the movement of the unit during the processing of wooden blocks and an extension of the bed with a length of 71 cm. The weight of the JET JWL-1220 is slightly higher than that of the previous models and is 45 kg.
Features of the Corvette 71 Mini Lathe
A similar model is produced in Russia by Anchor. It has a high level of functionality and relatively small dimensions. The machine for processing wooden blanks Corvette 71 has a power of 370 watts, which is quite enough to perform simple technological operations.
Of the features of this model, it can be noted that it includes an asynchronous motor. And it is also worth saying that the adjustment of the spindle speed is performed by changing the position of the belt on the friction wheels (pulleys).
Pay attention! The complete set of the unit includes special keys that are necessary for adjusting the cartridge, as well as bolts for fixing to the work surface.
The rotation speed ranges from 760 to 3200 rpm. The length of the workpiece made of wood, which can be processed on a similar unit, is 42 cm. The weight of the Corvette wood lathe is 71-38 kg.
As for vibration, it is insignificant when working on the Corvette 71. This effect is achieved due to the material from which the bed is made (gray cast iron). The cost of such a device is approximately 16,000 rubles.
School wood lathe STD-120
Woodworking units STD-120 are educational models that are adapted for processing small-sized wood products. The 120 series machine is most often used in schools or amateur workshops.
The main feature of such a device from its predecessors is the ability to change the spindle speed by moving the belt on friction wheels. Pulleys in such equipment have two streams, so the rotation speed is represented by two values: 1100 and 2150 rpm.
The unit with which the unit is controlled is push-button and is located on the front node. The basic configuration of the STD-120 machine takes into account the presence of replaceable spindles, and the workplace is equipped with special safety shutters. Such a unit operates from an electrical network with a voltage of 380 V.
Wood cutters for a lathe: purpose and types of tools
Purpose of the tool, types of wood cutters. Independent production of cutting tools.
The power of the engine integrated into such a unit is 400 watts. The length of the workpiece, which can be processed on the STD-120, is 45 cm. Fixing of such a model of the turning device is carried out by means of special fasteners – anchors. The STD-120 is massive and weighs 100 kg, and its cost varies from 40 to 50 thousand rubles.
Most often, such machines are used for the manufacture of simple wooden products. A standard set of technological operations can be performed on a wood lathe of this type.
Wood turning and copying machines
The unit for processing wooden blanks of this type includes a copying device. A copier is a device that allows processing a product according to a template. As a rule, a ready-made part acts as a template.
The process of working a copier for a wood lathe is quite simple. To do this, it is necessary to draw them according to the appropriate template, observing its boundaries. Such a technological operation has some advantages. For example, the speed of the task increases, and when using a copier, the possibility of spoiling the workpiece is eliminated.
Working on equipment that does not have a copier, it is not always possible to make a blank “by eye”. Even experienced craftsmen occasionally make certain mistakes. Therefore, the copier can rightfully be considered a very important functional element that reduces the percentage of defects during the processing of wooden blocks.
Useful information! The use of a wood lathe with a copier is most justified in the case of manufacturing large batches of identical parts from wood.
Let’s consider the work of a wood-turning and copying machine in more detail:
Using a wood lathe with a copier allows you to perform technological operations an infinite number of times. This makes it possible to use it in conditions of small industries, where the speed and accuracy of manufacturing various parts (for example, the legs of cabinet furniture) is very important.
Types of Wood lathe cutters
Incisors are elements that are used to remove certain volumes of wood blanks. All of them, from a constructive point of view, are similar to each other and consist of two main elements: the cutting and fixing part (rectangular or square).
The cutting edge can be represented by one or more surfaces. This element differs in its shape and width, which are selected depending on the nature of the technological operation. The main criterion by which the classification of incisors takes place is their location relative to the wooden block. They can be in two positions:
In the first case, the cutter is used to remove large volumes of wood. To do this, it is positioned perpendicular. In turn, the tangential position is used to remove a small amount of wood from the surface of the workpiece. This allows you to make complex patterns on it.
As well as chisels for wood lathes are classified according to their intended purpose. To date, there are many cutters that differ in their design and are used to perform various technological operations. Consider the most common of them:
Reyer. A product that is used for roughing workpieces. The peculiarity of this cutter lies in its blade, which resembles a semicircle in shape.
Meisel. This element is necessary for finishing. Its use allows you to give the wooden block a final look. The meissel is a plate with an oblique blade, which is sharpened on both sides at the same angle.
A scraper. A cutter of this type is needed to align the surface of the blanks, which have a cylindrical shape.
Comb. It is used for applying threads to the surface of a wooden workpiece.
Hook. Such a cutter is used to organize cavities inside the workpieces.
Useful information! There are other highly specialized cutters that are used to perform specific tasks of varying degrees of complexity. Some craftsmen make these functional products themselves, changing their shape at will.
You can buy cutters for wood lathes at markets, flea markets, in a specialized store or order them online. As a rule, these products are sold in sets.
Which wood lathe to buy: selection criteria
There are several main criteria that it is recommended to pay attention to when choosing a unit for processing wooden products. The main one is the power indicator, which determines the purpose of the device. For example, desktop models with low power are suitable for processing wooden products at home. If you need a machine for frequent use, it is best to pay attention to devices with a power of 500 to 1000 watts.
Another important criterion to be guided by when choosing turning equipment is the size of future wood workpieces. The lathe is selected according to strictly defined characteristics. In this case, two indicators are important: the center-to-center distance and the distance from the base (bed) to the installed workpiece.
And finally, the third parameter that determines the accuracy of processing wooden blocks is the spindle speed. Today you can find machines with a speed range from 400 to 3500 rpm. In this case, the following pattern can be traced: the faster the spindle rotates, the more accurately the wooden block is processed.
In any case, the choice of this equipment depends solely on you. A wide range allows you to easily pick up the necessary lathe. A video on this topic will also help you decide on the choice of a unit for home use.
Features of working on a wood lathe
Working behind such a machine, it is necessary to remember some rules that are mandatory for everyone. For example, it is necessary to use only dry wooden blanks for processing. The humidity of such blanks should not exceed 20%. And also it is worth remembering that the product should not have knots.
If you decide to process a wooden block, which is characterized by large dimensions, then experts advise you to perform all actions at low speeds. This will allow you to do the work efficiently.
Pay attention! To increase the operational life of a woodworking home unit, it must be taken into account that it needs periodic inspections and maintenance. The basic rule is that every 500 hours of use, it is necessary to lubricate the moving elements.
The simplicity of the structural design of woodworking turning units is a huge advantage. This is due to the fact that if a particular part fails, it can be replaced independently without any problems.
However, before interfering with the design of the device, it is recommended to carefully study the repair instructions, which, as a rule, comes with the equipment. Experts also advise you to watch instructional videos of working on a wood lathe before using such equipment.