Wind turbine for a private house: specificity and manufacturing technology
This article discusses in detail such type of equipment as a wind generator for a private house: structural features, its purpose and scope of application, internal structure and classification. In the text you can find useful information that will help you decide on the choice of a high-quality windmill, average prices for popular types of equipment, as well as a detailed description of the manufacturing technology.
Wind generator for a private house: purpose and design features
Wind farms for private homes are widely used as alternative sources of electric energy, allowing to achieve savings. Often such devices are installed in suburban areas.
They are most often used in areas remote from the main power grids. However, this is far from the only reason in favor of buying a wind turbine for a private home. Most land owners use these structures to achieve autonomy and economy.
Not every site is suitable for the installation of such devices, since conditions do not always meet the requirements of this equipment. First of all, this concerns the wind speed. In order for a wind farm to function normally, the average wind speed should be at least 4-4.5 m/s. Only in this case, the installation of the structure will be economically justified.
To find out the average annual wind speed, you can use the wind map. It reflects approximate data by region. More accurate indicators can be obtained using a special device – an anemometer, as well as a device for reading its signals.
Pay attention! The device for measuring data must be installed very high, otherwise trees and buildings will distort the result.
The principle of operation and structure of the wind generator
A wind generator is a special type of equipment that converts kinetic wind energy into mechanical energy. It drives the rotor blades mounted on the generator. As a result, an alternating current is created in its windings. The generated electrical energy accumulates in batteries, from where it is supplied to household appliances.
The described scheme of work is simplified. Of course, the device of a wind generator is much more complicated. There is also a controller in the energy chain. Its function is to convert three-phase alternating current into direct current. After that, it goes to charge the batteries.
Most of the household appliances are not able to be powered by direct current. Therefore, an inverter is installed in the chain behind the battery. It converts direct current into alternating current, the voltage of which is 220V. All these operations take away part of the initial energy – about 15-20%.
The building can be powered not only from a wind farm, but also from solar panels, as well as from a gasoline or diesel generator. If these elements are present in the chain, then the circuit is supplemented by another component – an automatic switch. When the main current source is turned off, it starts the backup ones.
A wind farm consists of the following components:
- rotors with blades (depending on the features of the model, there may be several blades for a wind generator, as a rule, there are 2 or 3 of them, although there are also multi-blade options);
- gearboxes or gearboxes that control the speed between the generator and the rotor;
- a protective casing protecting the details of the structure from the negative influence of external factors;
- the “tail”, which ensures the rotation of the structure following the direction of the wind;
- a storage battery that retains a certain amount of energy;
- an inverter installation that converts one type of current into another.
What kind of wind farm can I buy: equipment classification
There are several classifications according to which wind farms are divided into groups:
Useful advice! In most cases, experts recommend that owners of suburban housing buy a windmill with a fixed blade pitch, since adjustable devices are too difficult to operate.
A wind farm with a horizontal axis is placed perpendicular to the air flow. The design has a similar structure and functions on the same principle as a conventional weather vane. Wind turbines with a rotary generator have high efficiency, while they are affordable. The operation of these devices is based on the resistance of the air flow.
Wind turbines with a vertical axis, or orthogonal wind turbines, have a compact design, but their price is much higher. Due to the special structure, this type of equipment is completely independent of the wind direction. The blades have the appearance of turbines, which significantly reduces the load on the axial part. It will be advisable to buy a vertical wind generator in cases where the wind on the site constantly changes its direction.
Advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for the home
Like any other type of equipment, wind farms have both advantages and disadvantages. To decide to buy this device, it is advisable to weigh its strengths and weaknesses.
Why is it profitable to buy a wind generator (220V) for a private house:
The installation of a wind generator for the house is accompanied by the following disadvantages:
- the cost of purchasing equipment pays off in 5-6 years;
- a relatively small efficiency indicator, which is reflected in the power;
- high price of wind turbines;
- to compensate for the inactivity of the device on windless days, additional equipment is required: a generator and a storage battery (the cost of these elements is very high);
- in some modes, windmills for the house emit infrasounds (the same happens if the installation of equipment is made with errors);
- regular maintenance work is required;
- a hurricane can seriously damage the equipment.
Useful advice! It is necessary to calculate profitability before buying a wind generator for a house, the price of equipment may be too high, and the cost of purchasing it will not pay off. To do this, it is necessary to calculate the average power of the house (the power of all electrical appliances is taken into account), assess the area where the equipment will be installed, and find out what is the number of windy days a year.
Expediency of purchase: prices of wind turbines for a private house
The cost of wind turbines for private homes is quite high. The cost of purchasing equipment will pay off only if the area has suitable conditions.
The installation of a wind farm is justified in the following cases:
- the terrain meets the requirements of the equipment;
- the region in which the site is located is characterized by strong winds;
- there is no possibility of using other alternative sources of electrical energy.
In other cases, the cost of buying a wind turbine for a home will not pay off. If the number of windy days in a year is small, these devices can be supplemented with solar panels or generators running on diesel or gasoline.
How to increase the profitability of a windmill for a private home
Seaside areas, as well as open areas in mountainous areas, are ideal for installing wind equipment. In these regions, the wind speed is more than 60-70 m/s. Residents of these areas can completely abandon the central power supply systems and switch to wind farms. In flat areas, wind flows are more uniform, but their strength is not enough to fully provide the house with electricity.
It is highly undesirable to install equipment near forests and plantings. Trees will retain some of the energy, which will reduce the profitability of wind turbines. The power of the air flow increases as it moves away from the ground. So, the higher the mast of the wind farm, the more momentum the device will be able to capture. On the other hand, an excessively high structure needs additional reinforcement. It will be easier for strong gusts of wind to knock it down than windmills with a mast that reaches 5-7 m.
Experts recommend installing the equipment at a height of 10-15 m from the ground. There are two ways to fix such a structure:
To concretize the base of the windmill, you will need to dig four deep wells with a small diameter. Mast extensions are immersed in them, after which they are filled with cement mortar. This process is quite time-consuming and costly, but it is highly reliable. Even with strong gusts of wind, the mast will remain stationary. The only risk is the failure of the blades.
Fixing the mast with stretch marks involves the use of a metal cable. It is stretched until the windmill is positioned strictly perpendicular to the surface of the earth. After that, the cable extensions are securely fixed in the ground.
Important! Windmills with high masts need grounding.
Which is the best way to buy a wind generator for home: manufacturers and cost
It is necessary to approach the choice of a wind farm thoroughly. The main criteria are the power of the equipment, the type of axis (horizontal or vertical), as well as the manufacturer. Before buying, it is necessary to carefully study the technical characteristics and compare products from different manufacturers.
Prices of Russian-made wind turbines:
|Manufacturer||Price, thousand rubles.|
|Wind Energy Company||30-300|
Many of these organizations are engaged in the production of equipment for individual orders, as well as assist in the design and execution of calculations.
The prices of wind turbines for a foreign-made house are much higher. The minimum cost of installations is 120 thousand rubles. The products of foreign companies are distinguished by a high level of quality due to the use of high-tech equipment in production. However, the repair of such installations will be expensive, and the purchase of spare parts may be accompanied by difficulties.
Advantages of factory-made wind turbines:
- the opportunity to purchase a fully equipped device and even order its professional installation;
- extensive selection of manufacturers and modifications with different characteristics;
- quality assurance;
- the possibility of calling a qualified specialist to carry out repair work.
Taking into account the high cost of factory equipment, many owners of suburban plots prefer structures made with their own hands. It takes about 3000-5000 rubles to make a homemade wind generator. Most of this amount is spent on the purchase of a high-quality battery, which is capable of holding a charge for a long time.
Solar panels with your own hands: an affordable source of electricity
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Advantages of self-made wind farms:
- significant cash savings;
- when creating a homemade windmill, the designer will know all the features of its structure;
- the ability to make the main parts and blades for a wind generator with your own hands from improvised materials.
Homemade structures, unlike factory wind farms, fail much more often.
Pay attention! To install the factory design, it is better to call a specialist. Otherwise, any mistake made during the installation process will cause the warranty to be lost.
How to make a windmill with your own hands: technology and recommendations
The operation of an improvised device on the site may cause resentment from neighbors. Therefore, before making a wind generator with your own hands, you need to take care of following several rules.
Height restrictions are imposed on all individual buildings. Installation of a windmill with a mast height of more than 15 m is prohibited if the following objects are located nearby:
The wind turbine should not create ether interference. To prevent their occurrence, it is recommended to use special protection. In addition, the level of noise emitted by the blades should be monitored and kept within the normal range.
Materials necessary for the manufacture of a vertical wind generator with your own hands
A wind farm with a vertical axis can be used to provide electrical energy to various household buildings or a small garden house. Its power is enough to illuminate the adjacent territory in the dark.
To create a wind generator with your own hands from an automobile generator, the following materials will be required:
- 12V rechargeable battery (acid or helium);
- large cylindrical container made of aluminum or stainless steel (pot, bucket);
- car generator (12V);
- semi-hermetic switch button (12V);
- car battery charging relay or charge indicator lamp;
- converters (12-220V and 700-1500W);
- wires with a cross-section size of 2.5 and 4 mm;
- clamp for fixing the generator on the mast (2 pcs.).
To perform the work, you will need such tools and devices as:
- bulgarian (you can use metal scissors);
- marker or construction pencil;
- wire cutters and roulette;
- drill with a set of drills;
- a screwdriver and a set of keys.
Manufacturing technology of a wind generator from an automobile generator
A cylindrical container will be used as a base, for example, a bucket, an old cooking pot or a saucepan. Using a pencil and a tape measure, it is necessary to put markings on it to get a division into 4 equal parts. According to the marks, incisions are made with a grinder so that vertical blade plates are obtained. At the same time, it is very important not to cut the metal to the end.
Pay attention! If the container is made of painted tin or galvanized steel, you can not use a grinder for cutting, otherwise the metal will overheat. In this case, it is advisable to use scissors.
Bolt holes should be made in the pulley, as well as the bottom of the container. At this stage of creating a wind generator for a private house with your own hands, you need to be extremely careful and careful about symmetry. Any inaccuracies in the placement of holes will lead to an imbalance of the structure during rotation.
The blades should be bent, while they should not stick out too much. Performing this work, it is necessary to take into account the direction of rotational motion of the generator. Most often, the windmill is oriented clockwise. The rotational speed and the area of contact of the air flows with the structure will depend on the selected angle of bending of the blades.
Next, a container with blades is fixed on the pulley. The generator is installed on the mast, after which it is fixed with clamps. It remains only to connect all the wires and assemble the circuit. All cables are fixed on the mast of the windmill. To connect the storage battery, use wires with a cross-section size of 4 mm. A 100 cm long segment will be enough for this. Connection to the network of household and lighting appliances is carried out using wires with a cross-section size of 2.5 mm. An inverter or converter requires a wire with a cross section of 4 mm.
How to make a wind generator from a washing machine
To create a wind generator with your own hands from a washing machine, you will need a list of certain parts. Some of them can be removed from old household appliances, and the rest will have to be bought.
The design of the windmill will consist of the following elements:
- gearboxes for correcting rotational speed;
- rotors with blades;
- protective cover;
- storage battery;
- tail section;
- masts for fixing the generator.
The generator of the design is made of an electric motor from a washing machine. Its power should be at least 1.5 kW.
In addition, you will need:
- sandpaper and adhesive composition;
- neodymium magnets of 5 and 12 mm (32 pcs.);
- epoxy resin or cold welding.
Neodymium magnets will be installed on the rotor. They can be purchased in many stationary or online stores. The cores must be removed from the rotor of the asynchronous motor. After that, these parts are partially cut off. The cutting depth should not exceed 2 mm. To do this, you can use a lathe. Next, it is necessary to make grooves in the cores, the depth of which is 5 mm.
At the next stage of manufacturing a wind generator for the house, magnets are installed with their own hands. To begin with, a rigid coating is mounted on the core. After that, magnets are placed at the appropriate places at an equal distance. It is very important to keep a distance at the same time, otherwise in the future the magnets will stick together, which will negatively affect the power of the wind farm. To fix these parts, it is better to use superglue. During operation, it is advisable to wear protective glasses, since magnets may bounce off during the bonding process.
When the template with magnets is completely ready, it fits on the rotor. The resulting gaps must be filled with epoxy resin or cold welding. At the end of the work, the rotor is carefully clamped in a vise, and its surface is treated with sandpaper. Before starting the windmill, all bearings and bolted connections should be checked for strength. It is not necessary to use even partially worn parts for the assembly of the structure, it is better to buy new ones.
To create an impeller, it is better to choose a lightweight material with a high margin of safety. Fiberglass is suitable for these purposes. As a result, the blades are light and resistant to wear. The mast is better made of steel pipes. The optimal diameter size is 32 mm.
Anyone with an idea of how electrical circuits work can handle the assembly of a windmill. The main thing at the same time is to pay attention to all the details and carefully check all your actions. To eliminate the possibility of errors, you can use visual video materials that describe in detail the entire process of manufacturing parts and their further assembly.