Waste oil furnace: options for making the device with your own hands
With the approach of cold weather, many craftsmen come up with various designs for room heating and water heating. First of all, the question is raised about the type of fuel. In search of the most rational and cheapest option, many opt for working out, the average consumption of which is about 2 liters per hour. The waste oil furnace has a number of advantages. Knowing all the subtleties of its manufacture, you can create a budget and efficient source of heat in the house.
Advantages and disadvantages of a waste oil stove
A factory or homemade spent oil furnace is characterized by a number of advantages:
- providing fast and efficient heating of enclosed spaces in the form of greenhouses, household buildings, storage and technical rooms;
- independence of the device from electricity and gas;
- unique design features of the device that allow you to carry out the cooking process;
- ease of operation;
- the absence of an open flame;
- reliability of the structure, which is made of metal products connected by welding;
- when ensuring normal operation, the furnace does not create a lot of soot and burning;
- due to its light weight and dimensions, the device can be transported;
- the furnace can be made of scrap metal;
- during the operation of the device, the combustion of oil and its vapors is ensured;
- the furnace can be combined with a water heating system by installing a tank on top.
A closed-type furnace is not without drawbacks, among which the following can be distinguished:
- the possibility of clogging the feed tube with waste oil;
- the need to install a chimney with a length of at least 4 m;
- the presence of incandescent open surfaces;
- weekly cleaning of the chimney and oil tank from accumulated waste;
- there is a high probability of contamination of clothing and premises during contact with fuel;
- the fuel tank should be located in a warm room;
- unpleasant smell of used oil;
- it is possible to extinguish the flame in the device only after complete fuel burnout;
- in case of improper operation, the fire hazard increases;
- characteristic humming noise during furnace operation;
- the fuel ignites only when it is heated to the flash point.
Important! Before pouring oil into the system, it should be filtered out.
The principle of operation of the furnace on waste oil
The prototype for oil furnaces running on waste oil is kerogas, which was previously used in villages and dachas. It used kerosene as fuel, the vapors of which were burned in a separate chamber. To save on fuel, a waste oil burning option was developed. It can be purchased for free or at a reasonable cost at any service station.
Creating a homemade stove for working out is not a difficult process. The main task is to properly organize the system for a productive oil combustion process. To ensure complete combustion of vapors, heavy components must first be split into light ones, which is carried out as a result of pyrolysis. Proper oil heating is carried out for efficient evaporation.
The principle of operation of the oil furnace in the development is as follows. First of all, in the lower chamber of the device, the ignition of the working is carried out. The intensity of gorenje is regulated by means of a throttle valve in the device housing through which air enters the chamber. Oil vapors mixed with oxygen rise up through a vertical pipe. The pipe is connected to the upper tank, which is the afterburning chamber.
The mixture is mixed under the influence of the Coriolis force (inertia force). The intensity of the process is achieved by choosing the right diameter and length of the combustion chamber. To ensure complete combustion, sufficient air must flow through the flap. To do this, it is additionally sucked through holes made in a vertical perforated pipe connecting the tanks.
The gas flow is directed to the final afterburning chamber, in which the upper part is expanded. During its manufacture, a horizontal separation is carried out between the entrance of the chimney and the exit of the combustion chamber, which is necessary to ensure a temperature jump between the zones of nitric oxide and oxygen afterburning. At temperatures below 600 °C, nitrogen oxides are more active than oxygen. Decomposing, they oxidize fuel particles. With an increase in temperature, oxygen acts as the main oxidizer. Harmful substances are discharged into the atmosphere through the chimney.
Important! To ensure an efficient combustion process of oil in the upper tank, the temperature should be low.
Waste oil furnace: types of structures
There are several types of oil furnaces that operate on waste oil. The classic model is a pyrolysis apparatus. It is made of ready-made containers in the form of barrels, pipes, cylinders or alloy sheets. Oil is poured into the lower vessel, which splits when there is insufficient air. In the upper tank there is an intense combustion of its vapors, due to which a lot of heat is released.
Temperature adjustment is carried out by air supply. Such a furnace needs constant cleaning of the chambers from accumulated fractions. There is no mechanical temperature control in it.
A guaranteed air supply to the second chamber is realized at the stove during oil treatment with the help of a fan. Gorenje process is more efficient, so that the warm air evenly enters the room.
The principle of operation of a stove with a drip fuel supply is similar to the mechanism of operation of diesel engines. It is economical. However, the independent process of manufacturing the device is very time-consuming, so it is better to purchase a factory device of this type. In addition, it should be taken into account that homemade drip stoves are picky about the quality of oil, which must be preheated before being fed into the oven.
The most effective model is a supercharged waste oil furnace. It, in comparison with the bourgeoisie, has a higher cost. Additional heat comes from the blowing fans. Supercharging can be performed with the help of a car cooler motor, and blowing the heater will provide a 220 V home propeller.
Requirements for the installation and operation of an oil-fired furnace
It is required that the furnace is located in an empty room, near which there should be no flammable surfaces. Special attention is paid to self-made devices. They should not be placed on a shelf or other support that may catch fire.
A homemade furnace for working out should be located on a flat base, which can be concrete or brick. It is necessary that the distance between the device and the wall is at least 1 m. To form a good draft, the chimney should have a length of more than 4 m. Insulation should be provided on its outer side to prevent the formation of acid condensation.
The composition of the waste oil should not contain a solvent or other flammable element, so such components should be kept away from the furnace. It is also unacceptable for moisture to enter the oil container. This will ignite the furnace. In case of an emergency, a fire extinguisher should be used to eliminate the fire.
Important! In the room where the furnace is located, a good system of natural supply and exhaust ventilation should be organized.
Before starting work, the oil is poured into the container in an amount equal to half the volume of the tank, which will provide the necessary space for the formation of vapors. In order for the vapors to be enriched with oxygen, it is necessary to wait for some time. Then the fuel is ignited using long matches. As soon as the process of vapor ignition begins, the flap is half closed.
To improve the efficiency of the mini-furnace, it is possible to install a sealed tank with liquid above its upper chamber. For the supply and discharge of water, fittings are attached to it, which are placed at different levels. Another option to increase productivity is the necessary air convection, which is carried out with the help of a fan located near the upper chamber. Taking warm air from the stove, it contributes to its cooling, which has a positive effect on the service life of the device.
Options for improving the efficiency of the mini-oven with your own hands
Waste oil stoves are often used to heat a garage or a small workshop. In a building where people are constantly present, it is not recommended to use such a device. This is due to the fact that the stove absorbs oxygen, which has a negative effect on the respiratory organs of a person. If the device is intended for heating residential premises, it should be located in a separate room.
Additional devices can be used to increase the efficiency of the device. A waste oil furnace with a water circuit is organized by tying the coil body or mounting a water jacket on the chimney. In the first case, the coil is made of copper pipe. It is integrated into the heating system of the house.
The water jacket is made of sheet metal in the form of a container, which is located in the upper part of the case. It circulates a liquid coolant. For the effective operation of the furnace, up to 30 liters of water should be in the tank. Such a device will allow you to heat a large area of the room.
The furnace for working out with a water circuit must be equipped with an expansion tank with an emergency drain, necessary in case of boiling of the liquid. It is not recommended to install a membrane container here.
Another option to increase the efficiency of the furnace is the use of an air heat exchanger, which is represented by a fan. No structural changes are made to the device, and the heating of the room is improved. The fan is located near the upper chamber. When it is cooled, the heated air spreads over the area of the room. It is also possible to drive air through a box located on top of the stove, or through a pipe that is mounted in the afterburning chamber.
Popular variants of furnaces at the factory assembly testing, their characteristics
The Teplamos NT-612 furnace is often chosen as an apparatus used for garage heating. The power of such a drip fanless heater can vary in conversions of 5-15 kW. Fuel consumption is 0.5-1.5 liters/hour.
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This furnace is being tested for a garage belongs to closed-type devices. It is equipped with a chimney, an air supply pipe and a built-in tank designed for 8 liters of fuel. The combustion of fuel takes place in the inner chamber. The operation of the device begins with the electric heating of the plasma bowl. When the required temperature is reached, the fuel is supplied and the forced movement of air into the combustion chamber is performed. The average cost of the device is 30 thousand rubles.
Important! For the normal operation of the furnace, its preheating is required with a small amount of diesel fuel, which is poured into a special bowl.
Another popular model is the Zhar-25 oven (MS-25). This device can work not only on waste oil, but also on diesel fuel. The device operates from the mains, which feeds the internal fan. The heat output of the furnace varies from 25 to 50 kW. It is designed to heat a room with an area of up to 500 sq. m. The maximum fuel consumption is 4.5 liters / hour. The device has large dimensions. Its weight reaches 130 kg. This furnace needs to be equipped with a good chimney. You can buy it for 45 thousand rubles.
A stove for working out with your own hands made of sheet metal and pipes
Depending on the type of device, the structure can be created from pipes of different diameters or from sheets of iron. You will need such tools to work:
- grinder with cutting and grinding wheel;
- sheet metal and pipes;
- welding machine and electrodes;
- metal corners;
- metal paint that can withstand high temperatures.
Before making a furnace for testing, a detailed drawing of the device is performed. You can create it yourself or use ready-made options that are easy to find on websites on the Internet.
The first stage is the manufacture of the lower part of the chamber connected to the fuel tank. It has the form of a rounded or straight tank with a lid, where two pipes are located. The first is used to supply oil, and the second is used to strengthen the pipe that goes into the middle part of the apparatus. The elements for the tank are cut out with a grinder and connected according to the drawing.
The bottom and metal corners are welded to the walls of the tank, which act as the legs of the structure. To create a lid, a sheet of metal is taken in which holes are made. The first, with a diameter of 100 mm, is located in the center; the second, with a size of 60 mm, is closer to the edge. The lid should be removable, which will facilitate the process of cleaning the stove.
A pipe about 37 cm long and 100 mm in diameter is used to supply oxygen. In it, holes are made along the entire length of the element, which are necessary for the supply of oxygen. The pipe is welded perpendicular to the lid at the bottom of the device. An air flap is fixed on it, which will be fastened with rivets or bolts. The hole under the flap should be 6 cm in size. It is designed to supply oil and ignite fuel.
The design of the upper tank is carried out by analogy with the device of the lower tank according to the drawing of the furnace on waste oil with their own hands. The walls of the product must have a thickness of at least 350 mm. In the bottom of the tank, a bottom with a diameter of 10 cm is cut out, which must be positioned closer to the edge. A small piece of pipe with a diameter of 11 cm is welded to the bottom of the hole. This is necessary to attach the element to the gas combustion tank.
Since the upper lid of the furnace is susceptible to high temperature during supercharged testing, a metal sheet with a thickness of at least 6 mm should be used for its manufacture. An opening is made in the lid for the chimney, which must coincide with the opening at the bottom of the container. A partition made of dense metal sheet is mounted between these elements, located near the smoke hole. A pipe connecting to the chimney part is attached to the upper part of the lid. In detail, the process of self-manufacturing can be seen on the video of the furnace during testing.
Important! To give the structure rigidity and stability, a metal spacer in the form of a piece of pipe with a diameter of 200-300 mm is welded between the chambers.
Step-by-step instructions for making a furnace on waste oil with your own hands from a balloon
The device can be made from old items, using the drawings of the furnace on waste oil. For this process, you will need a gas cylinder with a capacity of 50 liters. You should also prepare:
- a pipe with a diameter of 80-100 mm and a length of 4 m;
- steel corner for the manufacture of the stand and internal elements of the heat exchanger;
- sheet steel for making the bottom of the upper chamber and the plug;
- brake disc;
- fuel supply hose;
- half-inch valve;
- a half-inch oil supply pipe.
An empty gas cylinder is used to make the case. It is necessary to unscrew the valve on it, after which it should be left on the street overnight for the remnants of gas to be weathered. A hole is drilled in the bottom of the product. To prevent the formation of a spark, the drill must be moistened with oil. Through the hole, the balloon is filled with water, which then drains, washing away the remaining gas.
Two openings are cut out in the balloon. The upper one will be used for the combustion chamber, where the heat exchanger will be installed. The lower one acts as a burner with a pallet. The upper part of the camera is specially made large. If necessary, it can be filled with other fuel options in the form of firewood or pressed briquettes.
Further, the bottom for the upper compartment of the device is made of sheet metal with a thickness of 4 mm. A burner is made from a piece of pipe with a length of 200 mm, as shown in the drawing of the stove on waste oil. A lot of holes are made around the circumference of the product, which are necessary for air to enter the fuel. Next, the inner part of the burner is sanded. This will eliminate the possibility of soot accumulation on the ends and uneven surfaces.
The burner of the furnace at the exhaust from the gas cylinder is welded to the bottom of the upper chamber. If there are no reserves of working out, wood can be laid on the formed shelf.
Manufacture of a pallet for working out and installation of an oil stove chimney with your own hands
According to the drawing of the stove, a cast-iron car brake disc is used to make a pallet for waste oil, which has good heat-resistant characteristics. In its lower part, a steel circle is welded, which forms the bottom. In the upper part there is a lid, through the opening of which air enters the furnace.
Useful advice! It is better to make a wide opening. This will provide sufficient air thrust, so that the oil will get into the pan.
The next stage in the manufacture of a stove using waste oil from a gas cylinder is the execution of a coupling from a 10 cm long pipe that connects the burner and the pallet. Thanks to this element, the stove will be much easier to maintain. You can take out the pallet and clean the bottom of the burner. To ensure the oil supply, a metal tube is inserted into the hole in the housing, which is attached by welding. An emergency valve is installed on the pipe.
The chimney structure is made of a pipe with a diameter of 100 mm. One end of it is welded to the hole in the central upper part of the housing, and the other is taken outside.
Useful advice! The flue pipe through the wall must pass in a special refractory glass.
After watching the video “Furnace on working out of a gas cylinder”, you can get acquainted with the sequence of actions in the manufacture of the device.
How to make a stove for pyrolysis type testing
The bourgeoisie on working out consists of three main elements:
- oil tanks with lid and flap;
- closed combustion chamber;
- afterburning chambers.
The furnace must necessarily have a chimney, the length of which is at least 4 m. The oil tank, according to the drawing of the bourgeoisie with their own hands, is made from a piece of pipe with a diameter of 345 mm, a length of 100 mm. A sheet metal cover is welded to its lower part. The upper removable cover is made of a pipe with a diameter of 352 mm, to which it is necessary to attach the sides with a height of 600 mm by welding. In the lid there is a central hole with a size of 100 mm, designed for the combustion chamber, as well as a side one (with a diameter of 60 mm) for blowing air, which is closed by a rotating lid.
Important! By adjusting the lumen of the blower, the furnace burning intensity is selected, which affects the air temperature in the room.Gorenje
According to the drawing of the furnace at the test, a pipe with a diameter of 352 mm and a height of 100 mm is used for the manufacture of the afterburning chamber. In the lower and upper parts of it, holes with a size of 100 mm are made. The first is intended for the combustion chamber pipe, and the second is for the chimney. Closer to the chimney opening, it is necessary to weld a partition with a height of 70 mm, a width of 330 mm.
Holes are made in the combustion chamber pipe using a drill along its entire height, leaving the lower zone with a height of 20 mm and the upper one (50 mm) unused. After completion of all welding work, the tightness and reliability of the seams should be checked. Next, a furnace test is organized. The oil tank is filled with waste. Kerosene is added on top. A neat ignition is carried out with an open blower, with the help of which, after heating the furnace, the heat intensity is adjusted.
Important! The furnace testing should be carried out on the street, which will avoid a fire in the room or another accident.
To heat a garage, a small workshop or a living room, you can use a stove for working out, which has a number of advantages. The device can be purchased ready-made or executed independently using drawings from the Internet. Before making a furnace, you should study the sequence of actions in order to subsequently obtain a practical and effective device.