Vise with your own hands: practical recommendations for manufacturing
Any home workshop should be equipped with a vise. This simple tool makes it possible to perform a large number of different operations. The vise has a wide or narrow purpose, depending on the variety and design. You can purchase ready-made equipment or make a vise with your own hands. This article will tell you how to do this.
Purpose, installation and device of the vise
A vise is a very useful mechanical tool that is used to fix parts during their processing. They are especially needed when it is necessary to rigidly and securely fix the workpiece or install it at a safe distance.
The very design of the classic vise is two sponges. One of them is fixed and fixed on the body or on the frame, the other can change its position. The fastening of the object takes place between the sponges by compressing them with the help of a locking mechanism, which consists of several elements:
To fix the vise itself to the support , several methods can be applied:
- stationary installation in one place with constant use;
- on the clamp, this implies less reliable fixation, but makes it possible to use in different places;
- with the help of suction cups – in this case, it is necessary that the surface is perfectly smooth and even.
Types of vises: which devices to choose for different jobs
There are several types of vises, which are classified according to various parameters. One of the main recognition elements is the type of clamping mechanism. Based on this factor, the following types of vises are distinguished:
- wedge – shaped;
- with the aperture set;
- with a pneumatic device.
Depending on the purpose of the vise is divided into the following types:
- machine tools;
Taking into account the material used, these devices are also divided into types. Carpentry vises for a workbench are most often made of wood, and locksmiths are made of metal.
Interesting to know! Vises are also called yews – both definitions are correct. Construction dictionaries characterize this tool as equipment for locksmithing or carpentry, used for the purpose of fixing workpieces during various types of machining (this may be drilling, planing or sawing).
Locksmith vise is the most common type of tool in question. These devices have their own subspecies, they differ in size, or rather in the width of the sponges. This indicator can vary from 63 to 200 mm. Small vises are used mainly for household purposes. They are fixed with the help of a lower clamp screw on a small machine, but more often – on a table or an ordinary stool. Larger vises are installed in industrial workshops and large workshops for the purpose of processing large parts.
Locksmith vise: price, features and varieties
A vise for locksmith work is a necessary part in any industrial workshop. Such equipment is necessarily present in the workshop of an experienced, self-respecting master. At the same time, depending on the shape, type of fastening and the processed material, they are divided into several types.
Pipe vises are used for fixing pipes or cylindrical parts.
The main advantage of the rotary vise is the possibility of fixing the part in the required plane and at the right angle for the organization of the workflow. With their help, it is possible to process the most inaccessible parts and their sections. At the same time, it is almost impossible to do this on a conventional vice. Like all installations of this type, rotary products can be stationary – these are bench carpentry vises that are attached to workbench tables. Another subtype is a vise with a built–in clamp for attaching to a table.
Hydraulic vises are designed to provide more reliable fixation of especially large parts. The clamp in them is carried out under the pressure of compressed air. Basically, such tools are installed at large industrial enterprises. The price of this type of carpentry vise is high, and the device is quite complex, so the tool is not intended for home workshops.
Self-centering vises are necessary in high-precision manufacturing, that is, where precise fixation of the part in a certain position is required. Usually, the structure of this type of vise assumes the presence of a bearing base.
Features and varieties of carpentry vise
Carpentry vises are used for processing wood parts. This type of work is specific, therefore it assumes a special design of the tool itself, different from the device of a locksmith vise. Most often, carpentry vises are made of solid wood, and fixing parts is done with wooden jaws for vises. In this regard, they should be wider than those of locksmith vises, in addition, they assume a much larger clamping area.
Carpentry vises most often have one base, but with two guides. With their help, the movable sponge is held, which makes it possible to avoid distortions. In this case, the guides can be an integral part of the workbench or removed if necessary.
Interesting to know! Even manual models of a certain design allow manipulations with elongated workpieces. For this purpose, a special wide anvil is used with the possibility of fixing the workpiece in a vertical position. They also produce models that serve to attach round-shaped parts.
Carpentry vises are also classified based on the technology used in the process of activating the screw. On this basis, they can be manual or pneumatic. If the classification takes into account the design features, then the vise is divided into rotary and non-rotary.
As mentioned above, carpentry models are used for processing wooden and plastic workpieces. Therefore, wooden parts are mounted on the sponges, which helps to avoid traces from the clamp. With the front mounting of the device, there is a chance to work vertically with fixed parts.
Design and type of vise attachment: price and quality
The locksmith machine can be designed for mounting on a workbench or table. For this purpose, special bolts are used. In this case, an all-metal vise design is obtained. The photos clearly demonstrate this.
You can also choose the option of stationary or rotary type, which will make it possible to process parts with the option of changing the angle. In this case, the width of the sponges will vary in the range from 45 to 200 mm with the possibility of a sponge departure by 140 mm. The advantages of such equipment are the wear resistance of the sponges, as well as a strong anvil, lightness and smallness of the product. If we are talking about a rotary model, it should be noted that it can be rotated 360 degrees. Do not forget about some disadvantages:
- during operation, the jaws of the vise require constant alignment of the position;
- washers on the vise are distinguished by the presence of locking washers that wear out quickly;
- it is difficult to clamp long blanks;
- there is a backlash in the device.
Locksmith vises are divided into parallel and canteens. In the first variant, the sponge is displaced due to the rotation of the vice screw, which occurs parallel to the stationary base.
The cost of industrial production vises with full equipment is quite high, so it is better to make them yourself, especially if you have minimal knowledge and skills, as well as the necessary materials at hand.
Homemade vise: machine design and manual model
Machine vise is a more accurate version of the device for fixing parts. It is either completely devoid of backlash, or the magnitude of its run-up is the smallest. The vise is simply installed on the workbench. They differ in that they have a rotary mechanism.
The machine version has its own subspecies:
- stationary (with fixation perpendicular to the location of the vise);
- sine, where the part is installed at an angle;
- multi-axis, on which the workpiece can rotate in different directions along the axis.
The machine-type vise provides a strong fixation, which is extremely important when processing metal parts. They have a durable housing and are covered with an anti-corrosion layer. The rigidity of the clamp ensures high precision operation. At the same time, if the workpiece clamp has a curvature, then traces will remain on it. For this purpose, a foil gasket will be needed, or it is necessary to fix the part using only the upper part of the sponges.
Useful advice! Carpentry vises, in comparison with other types of equipment, allow for more high-quality processing of parts made of soft materials, while with large products it is possible to work in the same plane.
The manual model is a portable compact–shaped vise that does not require stationary fixation on the base. They are designed for processing small workpieces and come in two types (based on design features):
- with sponges, screw and handles;
- lever-type vise, which resemble pliers with a locking mechanism.
Such vises are used to perform precise work, since they have a minimum level of backlash. The tool is designed for work with a profile made of aluminum and metal tiles, and it is also possible to clamp flat-shaped workpieces on them. Therefore, if it is intended to process miniature parts, it is enough to purchase or make a manual vise with your own hands at home.
Vise for drilling machine: an integral part of the machine
The vise mounted in the drilling machine is not an additional part, but a necessary accessory of the installation. With their help, you can fixedly clamp the part in relation to the machine chuck and perform the most accurate and even serial drilling operations.
When purchasing a vise for a drilling machine, you should immediately pay attention to the size of the sponges. Their width can vary in the range of 60-150 mm. Their depth and the index of maximum divergence are also important. Individual models of drilling vises have prismatic jaws that allow fixing blanks and round-shaped parts.
A subspecies of a vise for a drilling machine is a tool with an additional step that allows you to fix a small part in such a way that a significant part is located above the surface of the jaws of the drilling vise.
Machine for sharpening drills and other tools: rules of selection and use
The main types, design, equipment. Machines for knives, discs, band saws. Homemade and factory versions.
The main parameter is the distance between the grooves, which determines the possibility of mounting certain vises on the drilling machine. You can find models that have small ears instead of long grooves. Special attention should be paid to such drilling vises.
The modern market offers a wide range of equipment of this type. It is best to give preference to a model with a three-way installation. Such a vise can be easily installed not only on the edge of the lower level, but also on the other two. This feature makes them more flexible in their work. You can purchase a ready-made design, and it is also quite affordable to make a vise for a drilling machine with your own hands.
How to make a homemade vise for carpentry
Due to the variety of spare parts that the modern market offers, as well as thanks to the Internet, where you can find a large number of drawings with dimensions, it is absolutely unproblematic to make a vise with your own hands. It should be noted right away that the price of a homemade tool will be an order of magnitude lower than the cost of a ready-made vice.
Useful advice! In order for the equipment to be convenient and cope with the task, before making a vise, it is necessary to choose the dimensions in advance, consider the availability of tools and materials, prepare the blanks.
The first thing to consider when making carpentry vises is that the sponges should be made of softwood, which will avoid damage to soft parts.
To make the work as convenient as possible, the vise is screwed to the workbench. Then a simple furniture nut is attached to the fixed half for subsequent screwing in of the stud. The latter, in turn, will be responsible for the mobility of the mechanism. The next stage is fixing the washer on the movable sponge and fixing the collar to the handle. The sponge tips themselves can be made from simple plywood.
If you need to make a homemade vise for a drilling machine with your own hands, then you should mark up the parts, and then cut out three identical beams. The bed is prepared from a thick board or from three sheets of plywood. Two vertical holes are drilled on two fixed bars, on the third – a hole for a stud that acts as a clamping mechanism. Next, mount the nut into the beam.
A small patch with four holes for fixing is welded to the end of the stud. Next, the hairpin is screwed to a fixed sponge, and its end is attached to a movable one. The finished structure itself is mounted on a workbench.
Bench vise with your own hands at home: video, photo, diagram
A subspecies of carpenter’s vise, which can be easily made of wood, are the Moxon vise, or bench vise, which allow fixing large and dimensional boards, plywood and panels. At the same time, they do not require a large area in the workshop, they are made of wood. To make wooden vises with your own hands , you will need:
- hairpins – 2 pieces;
- nuts – 4 pieces;
- boards – 3 pieces.
The sequence of work:
An important point in the manufacture of wooden vises is that the holes in the fixed part should be smaller than the nuts, which will prevent the nut from idling in the hole.
Useful advice! Like the carpenter’s vise itself, you can make a workbench for them yourself. The table for the vise is made with their own hands in accordance with the required dimensions. At the same time, the processed parts should protrude slightly beyond the support.
How to make a vise with your own hands from metal: materials and sequence of works
Locksmith and milling vises are designed for working with metal, so a more reliable and strong material will be required here. We are talking about durable steel or cast iron. At the same time, they, like wooden ones, can be made with your own hands. The easiest way is to make a vise from a channel with your own hands. To do this, you will need such a set of tools:
- welding machine;
- electric drill;
- bulgarian with a circle for stripping;
- a square for the correct definition of angles;
- drills of different sizes and diameters.
In addition, you will need such materials and auxiliary means for making a vise from a channel with your own hands:
- channel made of 6 mm thick steel;
- a sheet of metal with a thickness of 6 mm;
- corner size 70×70 or 50×50;
- a stud with a diameter of 16 mm, used as a pressure screw;
- bolts and nuts – 20 sets.
It is not easy to make a pair of nuts into which the screw is screwed, it is best to use the services of a professional turner here. The nut is welded to the channel as coaxially as possible. The ends of the channel should be covered using pieces of metal sheets, a screw hole should be made in the bar.
At the next stage, using a grinder, two corners and a plate are cut out. The finished corners are fitted to the channel on both sides and covered with a piece of metal. Thus, a U-shaped structure is obtained, which is the basis of a self-made channel vise.
For the manufacture of the frame, a sheet of metal with a thickness of 7-10 mm will be required, in which four holes are drilled on each side, and 6 holes are made on the U-shaped element. One nut is welded to the frame, and two metal stoppers are placed on the sides of it. Sponges for vises are also made with their own hands: they are cut out of steel. One part is welded immediately, and the second is attached to a movable part.
Vise with your own hands from the corner: step-by-step manufacturing instructions
You can make machine vises from a metal corner with your own hands. This will require the same tools as for working with the channel, and the materials must be prepared as follows:
- metal corner 30×30;
- stud with applied thread;
- nuts for studs;
- a small bearing.
A sample drawing of the vise from the corner can be found on the Internet. In accordance with the required dimensions, it is not difficult to make your own product. First, you should prepare two blanks by sawing the corner. Their size depends on the width of the drilling machine bed. Next, two sponges are made of thick metal with the help of a grinder and a marking is applied, along which holes are drilled to fix them to the base.
Useful advice! You can give an aesthetic appearance to the vise with the help of paint. For this purpose, a simple enamel for metal is used.
Then you need to make a clamp with your own hands. You will need to take a part of the corner with a drilled hole for the stud. It is better to weld the bearing immediately. On the side opposite to the mounting with the bearing, it is necessary to fix the same corner and make a hole for the shaft. On the other hand, three nuts should be welded. For convenient rotation of the stud, a collar is attached to the base of the nut. Such a vise will cost much cheaper. In addition, knowing their device, you can independently repair the vise if necessary.
Experienced craftsmen know that it is quite difficult to drill and hold parts at the same time. As a result, the work turns out to be inaccurate, which affects the quality of the product. A vise of the appropriate type will greatly help to simplify the task. Using the recommendations given in the article, you can make them with your own hands. At the same time, such a vise will be practically no different from those purchased in the store, but it will cost much cheaper.