Vibrating table for paving slabs with your own hands: all stages of design and assembly
The question of the design of the tracks on the site sooner or later arises before all the owners of the plots. The option of using paving slabs for this purpose is one of the simplest, most reliable and beautiful. Therefore, for self-manufacturing and laying, you will need instructions on how to make a vibrating table for paving slabs with your own hands. This article will cover all the nuances of the device assembly, as well as the recommendations of specialists on the manufacture of the frame and the choice of the engine.
What is a vibrating table and why is it needed
A vibrating table, or as it is also called, a vibrating press is a special device designed for the manufacture of paving slabs. The main advantage of this device is the ability of its working surface to make oscillatory movements. In addition, the vibrating table can be used for other purposes, for example, for the manufacture of monuments, sections of concrete fences, etc.
As for the independent manufacture of a vibrating table, this is most often resorted to when they want to independently engage in the manufacture of paving slabs for the design of their own yard. Although in some cases this method is used to organize your own small enterprise.
Of course, using a vibrating table, it will definitely not work out to produce on an industrial scale, but given that it can be made from improvised materials, and with its main functions – eliminating air bubbles and compacting the composition of the molds, such a device will cope perfectly.
Let’s take a closer look at what will be needed to make a homemade vibrating table, as well as step-by-step instructions for its manufacture.
Types of equipment for the production of paving slabs
Vibrating tables are different, and before proceeding to manufacturing, it is necessary to determine the appropriate option and its features. So, depending on the direction of vibration, the following types of devices are distinguished:
These types of devices are divided depending on how exactly the rotor is located in them. At the same time, the first option (a table with horizontal vibration) is more popular.
Depending on the installation method, vibrating tables can also be divided into two types: stationary and portable (mobile). But depending on the specialization of the devices, there are those that are designed to form products, as well as those that are designed to extract the finished product from the mold by means of vibration.
Externally, the molding and unforming tables are practically no different, except perhaps for a special nozzle with holes, on which the mold is installed, from which the finished product is to be removed.
If you want to make your own machine for the production of paving slabs, it will be enough to make a vibrating table with horizontal vibration. At the same time, you can remove the tile in two ways: manually (usually flexible forms are used in a home workshop) or by installing a molding nozzle.
Technology of manufacture of paving slabs: the principle of operation of the machine
In order to understand how to make this or that device correctly, you need to understand the manufacturing technology of those elements for which it is designed. Therefore, let’s consider the principle of operation of the vibrating table and what each of its constituent parts is intended for.
The working surface of the table is attached to the frame by means of a special spring system, if it is a horizontal vibration device, or by means of suspensions, in the case of vertical devices. Due to the operation of an electric motor of rated power, on the shaft of which there is an eccentric, the table top is set in motion. Due to the fact that the eccentric shifts, the center of gravity changes, resulting in the desired vibration.
How to make a vibrating table with your own hands: drawings and description
A general idea of the device of the vibrating table can be obtained by familiarizing yourself with the sketch. But for the independent manufacture of such a design, a full-fledged drawing will be required, which will allow taking into account all the nuances and pre-designating the necessary dimensions of each of the elements.
Before starting to create a drawing, it is worth considering the two most popular options: for beginners and for masters. In the first case, the vibropress has a simpler design, but at the same time it allows you to perform the main task – to form products. The assembly, maintenance and care of such a device are carried out quite simply and are quite within the power of even a novice master.
Useful advice! Over time, additional functions can be added to such a simple design, for example, a sand sifter. The main thing is to correctly carry out all the necessary calculations so that the addition of new functions does not cause the failure of the main elements.
More complex designs designed for craftsmen initially combine a vibrating press and a sand sifter. In assembly, such a design is more complicated, however, it is convenient because it facilitates the process of obtaining components of the desired fraction.
Step-by-step instructions for making a vibrating table with horizontal vibration
The first thing you should pay attention to before starting work is the size of the countertop. It is believed that the minimum surface size should be 600×600, since with narrower sides, the shapes will fall during movement. In addition, a narrow design will have less stability.
Useful advice! If in the process of making paving slabs at home, the shapes still fall off, you can try to reduce their number. This will negatively affect the performance of the device, but in this case the number of tiles damaged due to falling will be reduced.
In many ways, the size of the vibrating table is determined by the required volume of production. We can say that there is a direct relationship here – the more elements must be manufactured at a time, the larger the countertop area should be. Naturally, a large vibrating press will require a more powerful engine, and the materials from which the structure will be assembled must be very durable.
As for the height of the vibrating table, everything depends on the individual data of the person who will work behind it. The standard height, optimally suitable for a person of average height, is considered to be 90-100 cm.
Important! When determining the height of the table, it is worth taking into account the installation method that will be used. So, for example, if a stationary device needs to be dug into the ground and cemented, then this should be taken into account in advance in the length of the table legs.
Materials and tools necessary for the assembly of the vibrating table: prices and characteristics
In order to assemble the structure yourself, you will need a grinder, a welding machine, a drill, as well as the ability to handle them. Let’s consider the list of necessary materials, which can be found among the required materials.
For the countertop, you can use plywood or a sheet of metal of a suitable size. In this case, the plywood sheet should be 14 mm thick. This will allow you to transmit more vibration due to the small thickness, but at the same time provide the necessary structural strength. In addition, in this way it is possible to significantly reduce the noise level during operation of the device. If a metal sheet is used, then its thickness should be within 5-10 mm.
The cost of a sheet of plywood of the desired thickness, made of birch veneer, will be about 650 rubles with a standard size of 1525 × 1525 mm. But a sheet of hot-rolled metal with a thickness of 5 mm will cost more, about 1000 rubles.
Useful advice! If a metal sheet of a smaller thickness is available, it can also be used by reinforcing the structure with metal corners or pipes welded along the center of the sheet and along the perimeter.
Metal corners with a size of 50×50 mm. They will be required to create the edging of the countertop and during the operation of the vibrating table will not allow the forms for the production of paving slabs to shift from the surface as a result of vibration. Their cost will be about 140 rubles per 1 m.p.
The channel for fixing the motor (about 210 rubles / m.p.). It will need to be welded in the center of the back side of the countertop, pre-drilling holes that will be used for bolts holding the motor.
Metal pipes for the legs of the table. Usually, elements with a thickness of 2 mm and a size of 40 × 40 are used for this purpose. The price will be 107 rubles for 1 m.p.
Pipes for forming the upper and lower parts of the frame. Since the main load will fall on these elements, it is worth choosing a fairly durable material – 40 × 20 and 2 mm thick for the upper part and at least 20 × 20 of the same thickness for the bottom. The cost will be 84 rubles / m.p. and 53 rubles / m.p. respectively.
Metal plates that will be used as a sole for supporting feet. For this purpose, pieces of metal with a size of at least 50 × 50 and a thickness of 2 mm are suitable.
A form for paving slabs with your own hands: tips for making
Materials for manufacturing and their features. Production of concrete for tiles on their own. General tips.
You will also need a plate for installing electrical equipment and springs, which are designed to provide vibration. It is quite possible to purchase these elements at the auto assembly. Numerous reviews indicate that the ideal option is the use of springs from mopeds, the cost of which at a height of 113 mm and a diameter of 54 mm will be about 500 rubles. They are installed in the corners of the table, and with a large surface area, another one is additionally mounted in the center.
Important! If an additional spring was installed in the center of the countertop, then the engine installation location and the configuration of the support will be changed.
Additional aspects that you should pay attention to when choosing materials for a vibrating table
In addition to the above materials, it is worth carefully selecting other components, which, although not visible, largely determine the quality of the device:
- bolts for fixing springs. This element acts as a cup for the spring, so it must have the proper strength. Sometimes pipe blanks with a length of 50-70 mm are used for this purpose. It is important that their diameter exceeds the diameter of the spring by 5-10 mm.;
- bolts and washers (usually 4 pcs.) that will be required to fix the engine;
- an electrical cable that must have a sufficient cross-section. It is also worth considering the presence of an outlet and an automatic switch in the immediate vicinity.
Important! If the diameter of the homemade cup will significantly exceed the diameter of the spring itself, this will lead to the fact that the vibration will be uneven. As a result, the spring will wear out quickly, and the movement of the table can be called rocking rather than vibration.
Production of paving slabs at home: how to choose an electric motor
The engine is one of the main elements of a vibrating table for paving slabs. Its price may be different, but before making a purchase, it is useful to familiarize yourself with the most popular models, as well as read reviews from users who use this or that option in practice.
Consider the two most popular options: their cost and characteristics:
For the production of a small amount of tiles, this will be more than enough, but if you want to organize a small paving tile factory in your workshop, it is better to pay attention to the model IV-104 B, with a capacity of 0.53 kW. To power it, a 380 V network will be required, but this will make it possible to achieve a driving force of 6.3 kN.
But there are cases when it comes to the manufacture of a very small amount of paving slabs for paths to the country, and it is simply unjustified to purchase a motor for this purpose. In this case, craftsmen use an engine from an old washing machine or a pumping station as a basis. In this case, you will have to spend much less money, paying only the turner for some alterations, if necessary.
The only significant drawback of such a solution is the fragility of old engines. They are extremely rarely able to withstand more than three dozen working cycles. After that, the axle is loosened or the bearing is completely jammed. Therefore, if you plan to manufacture a large number of tiles, it is better to purchase a more durable engine in advance, capable of serving the required period of time.
Important! The main task of the engine is to ensure uniform vibration of the surface, because otherwise, the solution may boil in the container, which will not lead to compaction, but, on the contrary, to increased fragility of the products.
Even taking into account the need to purchase all the necessary elements, it is much cheaper to make such a construction with your own hands than to buy a vibrating table for paving slabs.
Vibrating table for paving slabs with your own hands: rules for assembling the structure
After all the necessary materials are purchased, it remains only to put the structure together. But in order for the resulting device to serve properly for many years, it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
Useful advice! In some cases, the ideal location of the engine can be determined exclusively by experience. If something does not suit you in the work of the vibropress, you can experiment a little to achieve the desired effect and convenience in work.
Methods of unbalancing the vibration table motor
Depending on where exactly the engine is installed, it is necessary to unbalance the belt drive unit on the countertop or the pulley. There are several ways to do this:
- put a round pulley on the shaft, at which a section of the circle is drilled or ground;
- experimentally select a nut suitable in size and weight, and weld it to the pulley;
- put the coupling on the shaft, having previously welded a bolt with two nuts placed crosswise on its end. Due to the fact that the nuts can be moved along the thread, unbalancing is carried out.
As you can see, the independent manufacture of paving slabs for cottages is quite a feasible task if you spend time and effort on studying the issue and assembling the necessary device. Although it should be noted that with the help of such a vibrating table, it is possible to organize, for example, a small production of polymer-sanded paving slabs.