Three-way valve for heating with a thermostat: types and advantages
One of the main guarantees of comfort in the house in the cold season is the heat provided by the heating system. Today, the water heating system includes not only batteries, pipes and a boiler, but also less noticeable but important elements. One of them is shut-off and control valves, in particular, a three-way valve for heating with a thermostat. Let’s figure out why this part of the system is so important and what it is intended for.
What is the three-way valve for heating with a thermostat responsible for?
The valve with a temperature controller guarantees the practicality and efficiency of the system. Three-way valves for heating are designed to regulate the heat flow, which ensures comfort in the room and cost-effectiveness of use.
Why regulate the heat flow
Before proceeding to the design of the heating system, a thermal calculation is performed. Based on its results, a suitable power and type of heating devices capable of maintaining an optimal temperature regime in the room are selected.
The area of the room is taken into account, after which possible heat losses are analyzed. Based on this, the performance of the heating system is calculated, which is necessary to create a comfortable microclimate in the rooms. After that, the heat balance is compiled for all rooms.
However, these calculations are made under specific conditions that may change during operation. The factors affecting the operation of the radiator are different:
- temperature changes on the street;
- solar activity;
- wind power;
- the presence of household appliances that generate heat.
As a result, the calculated temperature balance is disrupted, and the room becomes hot. However, it is impossible to remove parts of the radiator from the room or to muffle thermal radiation. Thus, there is a need to manage the energy generated by thermal devices in order to maintain a comfortable microclimate in the room.
Maintaining a comfortable temperature with a three-way valve for heating
There are two ways to adjust the energy released by the radiator:
In both cases, manipulations with the liquid circulating through the pipes are necessary.
Qualitative change of radiator properties
In order to regulate the microclimate in the room, you can switch the heat generator to another operating mode – as a result of which the temperature of the water coming to the radiators changes.
You can switch the mode on a wall-mounted boiler, if we are talking about a country house. However, the situation is much more complicated in the case of the boiler house of the city microdistrict.
Useful advice! In the case of a city apartment, when you do not have access to a boiler room, it remains to regulate the energy already released by the coolant.
Quantitative regulation of heat flow by means of a three-way tap for heating with a thermostat
In the case when you cannot influence the temperature of the water coming to the radiator, you can adjust its amount. To do this, you need to buy three-way valves for heating with a thermostat. These devices allow you to limit the amount of water passing through the radiator, and as a result, with the same battery area, more or less heat will flow into the room, of course, within the limits limited by the power of the system.
The three-way valve for the heating system and the temperature controller installed on the radiator can be used separately, however, in autonomous heating systems of modern apartments and private cottages, a combined method is often used to increase efficiency. Thus, it is advisable to purchase a three-way valve for heating with a thermostat.
Limit of heat flow adjustment
It is important to take into account that the principle of operation of the three-way mixing valve allows you to increase or decrease the temperature of the radiator only within the established limits. These limits are dictated by the technical characteristics of the thermal device, namely, the value of its maximum heat transfer, and depend on each specific radiator.
Three-way valve device for heating
To understand how three-way valves work in a heating system, it is important to understand its device.
Visually, this device looks like an ordinary metal tee. Brass is usually used as the material for making the valve, sometimes cast iron or steel is taken. There are three nozzles in the device body.
However, inside the tee there is a mechanism on which the principle of operation of three-way valves is based. It automatically regulates heat flows, allowing you to maintain a comfortable microclimate in the room.
The principle of operation of three-way valves in the heating system, depending on the type of actuator
There are two types of actuators that affect the operation of the three-way valve in the heating system.
Types of three-way valve actuator:
|Type of executive mechanism||The principle of operation||Device|
|Saddle actuators||Equipped with a rod moving progressively up or down.||Inside the housing there is a saddle covered with a cone, which is fixed at the end of the working rod.|
|Rotary actuators||Equipped with a ball or a sector that rotates.||The rod does not move vertically, but the drive scrolls it so that the movement of the ball with an opening, as in ball valves, opens or, on the contrary, partially blocks the communication between the nozzles.|
Useful advice! For use in everyday life, you can choose a valve with a locking working part-a sector or with a ball: such models are optimal for cases where resistance to extremely high temperatures and high throughput are not required.
Types of three-way valve actuators
An external drive is responsible for moving the working rod. There are several varieties of this part of the system.
Three-way thermostatic mixing valves
According to the principle of operation , three – way thermostatic valves are divided into:
- direct acting valves;
- valves of indirect action.
Most often, this type of valve is used in household installations, and the price of a three-way thermostatic valve is lower than that of other types of this equipment.
This type of device functions as follows: when the temperature of the thermal device changes, the expanding liquid of the “bellows”, the thermosensitive element, presses on the working part of the device, the stem. The thermal head of the three-way valve is also located here, however, this element is not present in all devices.
A probe located inside the pipeline can also act as a sensor in such a valve.
Three-way cranes with electric drive
Various elements act as an electric drive of three-way control valves with an electric drive. There are two varieties:
- three-way heating taps with electric drive in the form of an electric magnet;
- three-way valves with servo drive based on an electric motor.
The actuator receives a command directly from the temperature sensors or from the control controller. Models of three-way cranes for electric heating are the most effective, as they allow for the most accurate regulation of heat flows.
Useful advice! You can buy three-way valves for heating without a standard drive, and then choose the most suitable adaptation option for your purposes.
Three-way valves with electric drive: features and advantages
Regardless of the position of the stem in the three-way valve, the circulation does not stop, so this type of device is not suitable for reducing the flow of coolant. This is the main difference between a three-way ball valve with an electric drive from two-way valves, regulators and other devices.
The principle of operation of a three-way valve with an electric drive
This valve is designed for mixing or separating, distributing flows. The separation valve regulates the amount of water by letting some of the liquid through the bypass path instead of the direct one. Two nozzles of the device serve for the output, and one for the input.
The principle of operation of a three-way mixing valve with a thermal head is based on mixing a cooler to a hot coolant or a hotter one to a cold one. As a result, the qualitative characteristic, namely the temperature of the heat flow changes, while the level of this change depends on the established proportion of the connected jets.
Water heating of a private house with your own hands, design schemes
How to make water heating in the house with your own hands. Drawings of structures. The difference between natural and forced water circulation.
Two ports for input and one for output can also perform a separation function. Such valves can be used in various removals.
It is often relevant to use three-way valves for solid fuel boilers, in the chamber of which condensate falls out at the beginning of the furnace. In this case, the valve helps to temporarily cut off cold water, and to let part of the heated liquid through a short circuit.
Three-way valves for underfloor heating and other use cases
There are several options for using this type of valves:
Three-way valve for heating with a thermostat: principle of operation and purpose
Thermoregulators are installed on the radiator passage plugs. If necessary, these devices completely or partially block the flow of the coolant. The same function is performed by the crane, however, if there is a thermostat, you set the necessary parameters once, after which the thermal valve maintains the set temperature independently. The greatest accuracy and functionality are provided by electronic thermal valves.
It is important to understand that the thermostat is not able to change the initial power of the heat source, however, it allows you to properly dispose of thermal energy and create comfortable conditions in the room.
Useful advice! In the case of cast-iron batteries, the use of a thermostat is pointless, since the thermal inertia is too high. As a result, although the price of a three-way valve for heating with a thermostat is higher than the usual price of a three-way mixing valve, the temperature controller significantly increases the usability and efficiency of the device.
The principle of operation of the thermostat
The temperature controller is a two-way device consisting of two main parts:
- valve (“valve”);
- thermal head.
The device of the thermostat:
|Element||Function||Device||Principle of operation|
|Valve (valve)||Locking mechanism||It consists of a saddle, a cone and a rod.||The working rod moves, reducing the distance between the seat and the cone and thereby reducing the flow. As the distance between these parts increases, the flow, on the contrary, increases.|
|Thermal head||Stock control||A thermosensitive substance is closed in the “bellows” (a special cylinder).||The principle of operation is based on the expansion of gas and liquids in case of heating. Under the action of a hot coolant, the substance in the bellows expands, pushing the spring-loaded piston. He acts on the rod with a cone in the saddle.
With a decrease in the flow of the coolant, cooling occurs and, accordingly, a decrease in the volume of the active substance. The spring returns the piston, cone and rod to their place, and the flow increases.
Repeating the cycle allows you to adjust the degree of heating of the radiator with high accuracy.
Useful advice! The efficiency of the thermostat is based on the accuracy and responsiveness of the thermal head to the setting of modes and their change. The faster this reaction, the better the device, and the higher the price of a three-way crane will be.
Types of thermoregulators for the radiator
There are several types of classification of thermoregulators for a three-way valve.
Classification of thermoregulators according to the method of temperature setting and temperature control:
|Type of thermostat||Features|
|Mechanical thermoregulators||The device is pre-installed using a handle with divisions. The stem is driven by a bellows and a return spring.|
|Manual thermoregulators||The principle of operation is similar to a conventional crane. Such a model can easily be replaced with a regulator for automatic operation of valves under variable conditions.|
|Electronic thermoregulators||They have a digital panel. The energy source is batteries. The temperature of the coolant is taken into account. Allow you to program the mode by time.|
Manual and mechanical thermoregulators can be divided according to the type of active substance in the bellows. Liquid or gas can be used as a thermosensitive substance in the bellows, respectively, thermoregulators are:
Thermoregulators are also divided according to their intended purpose. Depending on the features, the thermoregulators are designed:
- for two-pipe wiring systems;
- for single-pipe wiring systems.
According to the connection method , there are thermoregulators:
Choosing a three-way valve: features of models from different companies
To choose a suitable valve, it is necessary to compare all the characteristics of different models, namely the type of actuator, the type of actuator, the presence and type of thermostat, as well as the manufacturer and price of a three-way tap for heating. It is worth paying attention to models from leading manufacturers.
Esbe three-way valves: installation instructions and features
Among the main advantages of Esbe models are simplicity and affordable cost.
Useful advice! If you need to adjust the tap, give up simple models, the main drawback of which is the inability to stabilize the temperature regime at the outlet.
When installing the valve, a number of features should be taken into account:
Three-way Navien valves: features and advantages
Navien company specializes in the production of heating boilers. The three-way valves of this equipment are designed to change priorities between heating water for water supply and the heating system. These valves are worth buying if Navien equipment is available, because components and equipment from the same manufacturer are the key to long and efficient operation of the system.
Danfoss three-way valves: features and advantages
Valves manufactured by Danfoss are used in heating and water supply systems. Among the advantages of this type of equipment:
- stability and accuracy of adjustment;
- perfect compatibility with other Danfoss thermostatic elements;
- reliability and long service life without loss of operational characteristics;
- easy to install, maintain and operate;
- fully automatic operation;
- possibility of installation on the pipeline in any position except with the valve down.
Having carefully studied the technical specifications and tips on choosing a three-way valve for heating systems, you can choose a suitable device for a specific room and operating conditions.