The assortment of corners in the regulatory documentation: GOST standards, product characteristics
Steel corners are the most popular metal rolling product. These products are regulated by state standards – GOST 8509-93 and 8510-86. The assortment of corners includes several varieties, each of which has its own characteristics and purpose. The regulatory documentation specifies all the necessary geometric and physical parameters of the products. This makes it possible to carry out appropriate calculations during construction work.
What are the GOST standards of equal-sex corners and other types of products for?
Standardization of rolled metal products allows you to control its quality and dimensional characteristics. GOST helps to determine the necessary geometric parameters, which are a very important component of construction calculations. For example, the assortment of equal-sex corners (GOST 8509-93) includes a complete list of dimensions and technical characteristics of these products. Let’s focus in more detail on the functions that the GOST standards perform.
Quality control. If you deviate from certain standards, there may be a problem associated with a change in performance characteristics. Therefore, the first and most important task of state standardization is quality control, which involves fixing the parameters of these parts.
Pay attention! The entire assortment of metal corners is carried out taking into account GOST standards and the maximum permissible deviations prescribed in them.
Simplification of designations. Metal parts of this type are available in a wide size range. Without regulatory documentation, all information about quality characteristics would have to be indicated in the labeling of products.
Quick search for the right part. The tables of the assortment of equal-sex corners and other varieties of these products are specified in GOST and allow you to quickly find the right element. Classification by basic parameters greatly simplifies the finding of corners, introduces them to their properties.
It is worth noting that this documentation contains more than 10 different characteristics, arranged in tables with appropriate designations. In turn, in order to find the marking used, a special drawing is used. The cross-section diagram also simplifies the search for the necessary characteristics.
The main characteristics of the corners: GOST standards and the parameters specified in them
In the regulatory documentation that regulates steel corners, you can find all the useful information about them. Using the appropriate GOST, it will not be difficult to calculate the material required for the construction of frame structures of varying degrees of complexity. Let’s consider the main characteristics that can be found in regulatory documents or calculated using them.
To carry out construction calculations, it will be necessary to calculate the mass of the corners. The calculation of the weight of one linear meter allows you to determine the load factor affecting the structure. This indicator depends on the type of product and its dimensions. The size of the corners is an important parameter, as it determines the operational affiliation of these products. Length, width, and wall thickness – all these data are taken into account during construction. It is also necessary to take into account the shape of the products.
Another parameter worth paying attention to is the cross–sectional area. This indicator helps to determine the load factor. GOST for corners contains special tables that simplify the search for the necessary information.
Experts recommend paying attention to the radius of rounding of the metal product. As a rule, this information is contained in drawings. This value is not controllable, but it is necessary for the calibration of parts.
All steel corners are divided according to the shape of the shelves into two varieties: equal and unequal. The tables that meet the standards contain information about the thickness of the corners. GOST 8509-93, the assortment of which regulates equal-sex products, as well as document 8510-93 (contains information about unequal-sex corners) can be easily found on the Internet.
It is worth noting that the change in the thickness index affects the performance characteristics of the parts. In this case, there is a certain pattern. The higher the thickness of the shelves, the stronger the corners themselves, which means that their resistance to loads is higher.
Varieties of steel corners: GOST 8509-93, 8510-93, 19771-93 and 19772-93
The shape of the section determines the type of rolled steel of this type. The corners can be hot-rolled and bent (depending on the manufacturing method). According to the shape of the shelves, there are two types of products: equal and unequal. The shelf is one of the sides of the steel part. It can have different widths, which affects the strength and endurance of the part.
Useful information! Equal-sex products have two sides of the same length. Accordingly, the sides of unequal parts are characterized by different values. Such products have a limited assortment and are quite often made to order.
The width of the side of the corner made of steel can be different. This indicator ranges from 20 to 200 mm. In turn, the thickness does not exceed 16 mm. The mass of the product is calculated in kilograms per meter (kg/m). The length of such parts varies from 6 to 12 m (standard). The dimensions of the corners are necessary to calculate the number of parts.
Another parameter by which these products are differentiated is the accuracy class. Depending on this criterion, two types of steel corners can be distinguished. Group A includes parts that have the highest accuracy. Less precise corners belong to class B.
Regulatory documentation regulating all types of steel corners can be easily found on the Internet. Various types of these products are regulated by GOST standards:
- 8509-93 – hot-rolled equal-field;
- 8510-93 – hot-rolled uneven;
- 19771-93 – bent equal – sex;
- 19772-93 – bent unequal.
The above standards allow you to control all types of domestic profile corners made of steel. Using such documentation, you can easily determine the geometric and physical characteristics of standard metal products. The guest also specifies permissible deviations from traditional figures.
In addition to size differentiation, all steel corners are classified according to their intended purpose. The operational affiliation of these products may be different. Frame structures are formed from them, and they are also used in the automotive industry, furniture industry, etc. The composition of the steel angle varies depending on which alloy was used for its manufacture, which also determines the type of product.
Full assortment of corners: types by purpose and steel grade
Each type of corner has its own operational purpose. For any type of product, there is a separate GOST, which contains information about the production process, as well as about the technical and physical characteristics of the product. The following information can also be found in regulatory documents:
- about the steel brand;
- about product requirements;
- about the scope of application.
Hot–rolled and bent corners made of steel, as mentioned above, can be equal-field (GOST corner – 8509-93) and unequal-field (8510-93). Absolutely all products of this type, regulated by various GOST standards, are manufactured according to current standards and are divided into types for their intended purpose. Let’s consider which types of corners exist depending on the operational accessory.
Construction corners. Products of this type are used in construction for the construction of various steel structures. They correspond to the features of installation, which is most often carried out using welding equipment. GOST steel corner construction – 27772-2015.
High-strength corners. These products are manufactured using special technologies. In this case, low-alloy steel (or high-quality non-alloy steel) acts as a production material. The connection of individual parts is performed by welding, rivets, and bolts. The regulatory document regulating these products has the following number –19281-2014.
Pay attention! Corners that have increased strength are used for the installation of steel structures (most often load-bearing).
Standard (hot-rolled group) products. Carbon steel is used for their production. This material has standard technical characteristics. GOST of special purpose metal corners – 535-2005.
Shipbuilding products. It is used in the construction of ship structures. Corners are made of steel alloys, which most often have excellent technical characteristics and, accordingly, higher quality. These products are regulated by the normative document GOST 5521-93.
Corners for bridges. They are used in the construction of transitional structures. It is customary to use low-alloy steel alloys for their production. It is worth noting that products of this type are highly resistant to adverse weather conditions. This allows them to be used in the construction of bridges in the northern regions. These elements are regulated by GOST 6713-91. They have a special marking and designation. Corners for bridges are characterized by a high coefficient of strength.
It is worth mentioning separately about products that are operated in the most adverse weather conditions (for example, during the construction of structures in the Arctic). They are highly durable and able to withstand strong pressure. Another type of steel corners is alloy. These details are used in the construction of pedestrian bridges. They perfectly tolerate extreme conditions.
The list of grades of steel used for the manufacture of corners does not end with alloys regulated by regulatory documents. Many manufacturers are engaged in the production of non-standard products, relying on individual customer orders. Thus, the range of steel corners is incredibly wide.
Angle accuracy index: GOST 8509-93, 8510-93 and others
Another parameter by which steel corners are classified is accuracy. This is an indicator that determines the number of deviations from a fixed norm. Depending on this criterion , two main groups of steel products can be distinguished:
- normal accuracy (B);
Channel: product sizes or how to choose a suitable profile
The main characteristics and dimensions of running grades – 10, 12, 14, 16 and 20. The formation of prices for products.
- increased accuracy (A).
Pay attention! When installing industrial-type structures, as a rule, corners that belong to the first class are used. In turn, products classified as Group A are used in cases where it is necessary to ensure maximum reliability. This is explained quite simply: they are distinguished by increased strength characteristics.
The dimensions of the steel corners of class B may have deviations, which are specified in the GOST. For this type of products , there are the following permissible discrepancies:
- 1.5 mm with a side width of 90 mm;
- no more than 1 mm with a side width of 45 mm;
- no more than 3 mm for corners with a size of 250 mm;
- 2 mm with a side width of 150 mm.
Separately, it is necessary to say about the details that have dimensions of 50x50x5. GOST corners of this type takes into account their permissible errors in thickness in the range from 0.3 to 0.5 mm. Such products are popular and are used everywhere.
The curvature of the finished elements can also have an acceptable deviation, which is 0.45 mm (along the entire length). The discrepancies indicated in the regulatory documentation must be unconditionally observed by the manufacturers of this type of rolled metal.
Assortment of equal-sex corners: types and characteristics
Equal-sex parts are divided into several varieties. This is explained by the differences in the production process, and also takes into account what material was taken to make the corners. Equal-sex products are controlled by two main documents. The first of them is GOST 8509-93, which regulates parts made using hot rolling. The second document is GOST 19771-93, it contains all the necessary information about the corners obtained by bending.
As already mentioned above, equal-floor rolled metal is so called because it has sides of equal size. Products made by the method of hot rolling are very popular. The production process in this case is divided into several main stages. Before the advent of modern standardization, these products were regulated by GOST 8509-86.
First of all, the workpiece is heated. This is necessary in order to achieve the possibility of molding the product. Red-hot metal is more amenable to processing. At the next stage, the heated metal billet is passed through special shafts that exert the necessary pressure on it. The result is a corner with the right dimensions.
In this way, an angular equal-field part is formed. Steel for the production of such products may have a different composition. It depends on what characteristics the future product will have.
The production of bent corners made of steel with equal sides has its own characteristics. To perform such a variety of rolled metal, it is necessary to first prepare a metal sheet of the appropriate thickness. Next, the sheets are processed on machines. Bending allows you to get quite strong parts, but in this indicator they are still inferior to hot-rolled analogues. Products obtained by bending have the following advantages:
- high accuracy;
- a small mass;
- variety of sizes.
Useful information! It is important to note that the range of these products includes parts made of heat-resistant, carbon, alloy, and high-alloy steel alloys. GOST standards of equal-field corner parts allow you to control their production and contribute to compliance with the necessary requirements, which are the key to safe construction.
Hot-rolled steel equal-pole corners: GOST 8509-93
These products are made by rolling. A distinctive feature of this process is that it is performed continuously. This allows you to significantly increase productivity. Rolling also has one significant drawback –the difficulty in reconfiguring equipment. Thus, in order to release a different type of corner, it will take quite a long time. Such details are regulated by GOST 8509-93. In the USSR, they were controlled by another regulatory document – GOST 8509-72.
The features of the equipment used for hot rolling of steel allow you to make products that do not have a length limit. In this case, the dimensions of the workshop in which the work is carried out play an important role, since it depends on them how long a hot-rolled steel equal-floor corner can have. Of course, certain standards (from 6 to 12 m) are specified in the regulatory documentation. However, upon receipt of an individual order, the manufacturer can make a product that will differ from traditional analogues.
Before forming, the rolled metal is heated to the desired temperature. This makes it possible to produce products with thicker walls. Today you can find corners whose thickness exceeds 16 mm. They have high strength and are used to assemble a variety of structures.
According to GOST, hot-rolled corners should not be curved. The curvature index cannot exceed 0.4% of the entire length of an equilateral part. Otherwise, the product is considered a marriage.
The peculiarity of the manufacture of steel products of this type is reflected in their appearance, which is not presentable. And it is also worth noting that during hot rolling, changes occur in the structure of the steel itself, which makes it more durable, but at the same time it becomes predisposed to cracks. Based on the above, these products are used in the construction of frame structures that serve as supports.
Bent equal-sex corners: assortment, their characteristics
Regulatory documentation, which specifies the standards of this type of rolled metal, as well as permissible deviations from them, can be easily found on the Internet. Equilateral products manufactured by the bending method are regulated by GOST 19771-93.
The bending of steel billets is carried out by applying high pressure, through which molding takes place on standard machines. It is important to remember that this process is performed at normal temperature, that is, preheating of the part is excluded.
Regulatory documentation allows you to determine the standard dimensions of such products, as well as to find out their physical characteristics, such as the weight of equal-sex corners and the strength coefficient. As in the previous case, the type of production affects the technical and physical properties of the products.
Pay attention! The disadvantage of bending is low productivity. The final length of the rolled metal in this case is lower (approximately 6 times).
In addition, bending makes it difficult to obtain metal corners with a large wall thickness. During bending, high pressure is applied to the steel. As a result, the steel is stretched at the bending point, which affects the strength characteristics of the product. The area corresponding to the bend is the weak point of the product.
The assortment of steel corners (GOST 8509-93) is more diverse, since these parts, unlike bent ones, have no length restrictions. Despite all its shortcomings, these products are in demand. Bent equilateral parts are characterized by the following advantages:
- compactness of production equipment;
- presentable appearance.
The operational scope of bent equilateral parts is quite extensive. Due to their attractive appearance, they are very popular in the organization of sheathing of load-bearing structures. And they are also used in manufacturing enterprises that produce household appliances and lighting equipment. Such corners are indispensable in the case when small parts are needed.
Assortment of uneven corners (GOST 8510-93) hot-rolled
The shape of these products resembles the letter “G”. They are a solid metal profile, which is produced by rolling. Two types of steel are used for the manufacture of such products: low-alloy and carbon steel. In the first case, the products have increased strength, which affects their operational purpose.
This kind of rolled metal is used in the construction of frame structures that have a bend. As an example, arched structures can be cited. The assortment of uneven corners made by rolling has certain length restrictions. Standard length indicators range from 4 to 12 m.
The deviation in length, according to GOST, should not be more than 30 mm if the length of the products is 4 m. With a length of corners from 4 to 6 m – no more than 50 mm. If the length of the products exceeds 6 m, then the deviation is allowed by no more than 60 mm.
These products differ from angular equal-pole steel (GOST 8509-93) elements and for their intended purpose. They are often used in the construction of arched structures and for strengthening walls.
Experts recommend taking into account the operating conditions when choosing these products. This is due to the fact that not all varieties of angle rolled metal are suitable for use in harsh climates.
Useful information! For the construction of frame structures in an aggressive environment, products equipped with a protective layer of zinc (galvanized) are used. They have a high resistance to temperature fluctuations and are resistant to moisture.
Assortment of bent unequal corners (GOST 19772-93)
Bent unequal products also have their own characteristics, which are determined by the method of their production. Two types of steel are used for their manufacture. Both variants of the steel alloy belong to the category of carbonaceous (semi-calm and boiling). Another parameter by which these products are classified is the accuracy of profiling. In accordance with this indicator , the products are:
- high-precision (A);
- increased accuracy (B);
- standard (In).
Before purchasing the necessary product, it is recommended to study the full range of unequal corners. GOST 8509-93, which characterizes the hot-rolled equilateral variety of rolled metal, emphasizes that the curvature of the products should not exceed 0.4% of the entire length. In turn, parts made on bending equipment may have a deviation of 0.1%. This is very important, as buyers often confuse the varieties of steel corners.
Corners made of steel, for the production of which roll forming equipment is used, are used in the construction of various metal structures. Their advantages include versatility, light weight and a wide range of products.
Dimensions of metal corners: the most popular products
These products may have different dimensions. Their operational affiliation depends on this indicator. As mentioned above, a shorter variety of rolled metal, manufactured on bending equipment, is used as frame elements for machine tools and furniture. The regulatory documentation contains tables that specify all the necessary geometric characteristics of steel corners (including their length).
The assortment of steel corners of equal-sex and unequal-sex includes many varieties. Some products are very popular among buyers.
The most popular today are the bent corners, which belong to class B. First of all, this is due to their attractive cost, especially if you compare them with the price of the parts included in group A. It is worth noting that, despite its low cost, such parts are quite strong. Therefore, they are often used in the installation of various housing structures.
Among the many products of various sizes, the most used options can be distinguished. These include corners 30x30x3, 50x50x5 mm, as well as parts with sizes 40×40, 70×70 and 100×100 mm. Metal products with a shelf width of 40 mm are popular, as they are used in the installation of benches and outdoor tables. They can also be used in the construction of gazebos and canopies. Details 50×50 mm are considered the most popular, because they are part of fences and other fences.
The corners of 50×5 and 50×6 mm have sufficient strength, which allows them to be used in the assembly of frame structures. However, they are unable to withstand heavy loads, so they are recommended to be used only in light structures.
Metal corner 50×50: characteristics and operational scope
Steel parts with dimensions of 50×50 mm are the most popular type of corners. They belong to the group of equal-sex products and are produced by rolling. The thickness of the shelves that are part of such a rental may be different. It is this indicator that determines the operational affiliation of steel parts.
Pay attention! The thicker the corner, the higher its cost. This is easy to explain, since this value determines the amount of raw materials spent on the production of the product.
The thickness also affects the mass of the part. For example, a product, this indicator of which is equal to 4 mm, weighs 3.05 kg (1 running meter of the part 50×50). The weight of 1 meter of the corner with a width of 5 mm will be more by 720 g and is 3.77 kg. The length of the products belonging to the hot-rolled group reaches 12 m. If necessary, you can place an individual order by providing the executive organization with its own dimensions.
The maximum shelf thickness of these products is only 5 mm. Despite this fact, they have a good density and high strength. The most common use of such corners is in furniture production. Due to the low weight of these products, it is possible to design the frames of cabinets and other interior items. The use of corners is due to the fact that they contribute to obtaining ideal angles, which are so necessary when assembling furniture.
Products having similar dimensions are regulated by the relevant GOST. The assortment of equal-sex corners allows you to select the necessary parts for different purposes. A corner with shelves of 50 mm is used in the construction of various fences on playgrounds.
How to determine the weight of an equal-sex corner
Many people are interested in the question of how to determine the mass of equilateral and non-equilateral corners. This parameter is necessary during the planning of the amount of material (before the start of construction), as well as other calculations are made using it. Knowing the weight of rolled metal, it is possible to determine the load that will be exerted on the future structure. In any case, the weight of the linear meter of the corner is a necessary characteristic.
To date, there are several methods that allow you to calculate this parameter. The simplest of them is the tabular method. In the normative documentation regulating equal-sex and unequal-sex products, you can easily find the necessary table. It contains not only dimensional data, but also physical characteristics, which include the weight of 1 meter of the corner.
However, the tabular method has some disadvantages. It is not always possible to find the relevant documentation on the Internet. In addition, it is necessary to know that some tables contain rounded values, the use of which will entail the appearance of an error.
Pay attention! Of course, when calculating the weight of one product or small batches of corners, such an error will not be fatal. If the number of products is large, then it is recommended to calculate their weight yourself.
To determine the weight of 1 meter of the corner, you can use a manual calculation method. This method involves finding the cross-sectional area of the part. To determine this value, you need to measure the length of one side (shelf). After that, it is necessary to multiply the length by the thickness of the shelf. Next, you need to measure the length of the second side and subtract the thickness from it. The resulting figure is multiplied by the thickness indicator. Both values (for 1 and 2 shelves) are added together to find the cross-sectional area of the corner.
At the last stage, you will need to multiply the area indicator by the density and by 1 m. The density can be viewed in the table. Thus, as a result of a simple calculation, you can get the weight of 1 m of the part.
In addition, there are special online calculators that allow you to quickly and accurately calculate the mass of the product, as well as calculate other values. All you need to do is enter the initial data in the corresponding columns. Such a program can be found on the Internet on specialized sites. After determining the weight of the corner meter, it becomes possible to carry out further calculations.
The assortment of steel corners is very wide. To date, there are several varieties of these products, each of which is actively used in construction and manufacturing. To determine the geometric and physical characteristics, there is a special regulatory documentation. GOST standards greatly simplify the selection and calculation of the number of steel corners.