Pellet burner with your own hands: quick assembly and automation of the process
The pellet burner is installed on a solid fuel boiler and is used to organize the heating of premises. It can be purchased ready-made, but it has a fairly high cost. If necessary, such a device can be made independently. A pellet burner with your own hands can be made of different materials and have both a simplified and a more complex design option.
Why you need a pellet burner: device features
Pellets are a fuel that is of high quality and is able to compete with conventional firewood. For the manufacture of such raw materials, wood and agricultural waste, as well as peat, are used. Pellets are pellets of small size.
What is the advantage of such pellets over standard fuels? First of all, it is necessary to note the high efficiency of raw materials. Ordinary firewood after burning out gives from 40 to 80% of energy. The remaining material is disposed of, so the economic feasibility of such heating is questionable.
A boiler with a pellet burner allows you to increase the processing of material up to 90%. This is one of the highest combustion rates among all types of fuel. It is worth noting that granular raw materials are not recommended for some types of boilers. For example, such fuel can harm equipment, the principle of operation of which is based on pyrolysis.
Useful information! When choosing a burner, it is necessary to pay attention to its power. Today, you can purchase models that automatically adjust this indicator. An example is the Zota pellet burner.
During fuel processing, the temperature inside the burner can reach 1000 °C. It follows from this that when using such a device, maximum care must be taken. This is especially true for designs made with their own hands. Assembly errors or improper operation can lead to a fire.
Pellets: what is that? Detailed fuel characteristics
This raw material is characterized by high energy intensity. It is thanks to this that it has become widespread. One kilogram of granulated pellets during processing emits approximately 5 kW/h of heat. It follows from this that for the organization of heating of a standard private house with average dimensions, it will take about 2 kg of material per hour.
Pellets for the burner are loaded into the device approximately 1-2 times a day. When loading a new portion of raw materials, it is recommended to clean the ash pan from combustion products. Purchased burners require weekly cleaning, and homemade devices get dirty even faster. It is recommended to clean the device made with your own hands approximately once every 3 days. Otherwise, it will fail pretty quickly.
Some burner models do not require loading for 5 days. An example is the APG-42 pellet burner. This model is compatible with Teplodar-Cooper boilers.
The disadvantage of pellet burners is reverse gorenje, which is accompanied by the penetration of the pyrolysis zone into the bunker, intended for storage and fuel supply. This entails smoke in the room where the heating equipment is located, and there is also a possibility of fire.
Pellets from sawdust or any other recycled waste with an excess of air in the structure can be blown away, which will lead to a large amount of waste (ash). The air supply must be clearly regulated, otherwise not only an excess of it, but also a shortage can lead to inefficient operation and rapid clogging of the device.
The need for granular fuel in the air is determined primarily by the combustion mode.Gorenje. Choosing the right regime is a paramount and very important task. The output to the operating mode of the burner is carried out in 5 stages. Before using the device, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with each phase in more detail.
The first thing you need to do is to set fire. The burner for the pellet boiler is ignited using a special ceramic lighter rod, which, when turned on, heats up to a very high temperature (900-1100 ° C). Devices made with your own hands can be ignited with an ordinary splinter.
Pay attention! In no case should flammable liquids be used to ignite the burner. In this case, the gorenje process will immediately go into the bunker, resulting in a fire.
The second stage of preparing the equipment for operation is the launch. It is very important to adjust the correct air supply to adjust the flame of the burner. Next, the device is overclocked. At this stage, the burner enters the normal operating mode.
After acceleration, it is necessary to adjust the air so that the correct temperature of the coolant in the return is set inside the device. Then you need to stop the supply of granular fuel and set the required air intensity.
Design features of pellet burners
The main task of any burner is to ensure uniform heating of the boiler. This goal is achieved through the processing of granular fuel. From a constructive point of view, the burner is a combustion chamber, which most often resembles a pipe in shape. Gorenje inside such a device occurs due to continuous air supply.
Fuel delivery is carried out by a special device – a screw. For air injection, a fan is provided in the design, the operation of which does not allow the flame to go out. The burner can have a variety of shapes, which does not significantly affect the efficiency of the device. Chambers that have a circular cross-section shape are the most common. This is due to the fact that they are the easiest to make. However, rectangular variants are quite common.
In round burners used for pellet processing, a flat base is installed. It is used to place fuel and is mounted externally to the front surface. It is worth noting that some burners have the ability to connect a GSM module. As an example, the Terminator 15 pellet burner can be cited. Its cost is approximately 75 thousand rubles.
The principle of operation of these devices is quite simple. First, the sawdust is loaded into the hopper, after which it is delivered through the channel to the burner. The fan pumping air maintains the required flame level inside the device. The combustion products accumulate in the ash pan. Cleaning of this compartment is recommended to be carried out at least once a week.
Pellet burner with your own hands: varieties
Devices that are used for processing granular raw materials are divided into two types, depending on the principle of operation – with forced intake and gravity. The choice of a particular type of equipment depends primarily on individual operating conditions.
Pay attention! The most common version of the burner requires the mandatory availability of electricity. In this case, electricity is necessary for the operation of the mechanism that ensures the uninterrupted supply of granular fuel. Automatic pellet burners (with forced intake) are considered the optimal solution for the organization of building heating.
Devices of this type include several mechanisms through which the supply of pellets is carried out. The first of them operates using a pneumatic system. The second mechanism is equipped with a special tool – a screw. Safety in the system is ensured by the design of the channel installed from the bottom up, through which the pellets are fed.
Automatic devices have one serious advantage – fire safety. Such devices are used in the equipment of different manufacturers. For example, they are integrated into Teplodar boilers. Pellet burners, reviews of which are mostly positive, have a fairly high cost. The price of some models exceeds 150 thousand rubles. More budget options can be purchased for 60-80 thousand rubles.
The design of the pneumatic type is characterized by maximum safety. This is due to the fact that the pellet feed system delivers fuel in small portions. Thus, it does not linger in the connected channel. For such a burner, it is possible to install a dimensional hopper that does not need frequent loading. If desired, you can buy a device of this type. Currently, pneumatic pellet burners Obschemash are very popular.
Feeding mechanisms belonging to the screw type include two main nodes. With the help of the first screw, the granular fuel is taken from the hopper. The operation of this device allows you to transfer pellets to another receiver. After that, the second auger directs the raw material directly into the burner.
The disadvantage of devices in which the fuel supply is forced is their energy dependence. In the event of a power outage, the burner stops working.
Gravity pellet burner: design features
Devices of this type, operating on pellet fuel, have a different principle of operation for feeding pellets. It should be said right away that such units are more convenient to handle. The main advantage of the gravity mechanism is that it does not require a mandatory connection to the power grid.
Pellets in this case are located in a hopper and can flow into a connected channel under the action of their own weight. There are several popular domestic companies engaged in the production of such units (Pelletron, Behemoth). A pellet burner of this type is started very simply – by changing the position of the flap. It is important to remember that a draft regulator is installed on the chimney, which can also be adjusted.
Pay attention! The main disadvantage of all gravity structures is that they do not provide as high safety at work as their counterparts. During operation, there is a possibility of ignition of granular fuel in the bunker. An increased risk of ignition exists due to the design features of the hopper, which has a direct connection with the hole through which the fuel is supplied.
The efficiency of gravity devices is slightly lower than that of analogues operating due to the forced supply of granular fuel. Installing a pellet burner of this type is not a difficult task. Its full connection can be completed in just a few hours.
In order to increase the fire safety indicators of this device, many manufacturers install special dampers on it. They are equipped with thermal sensors, which, in the event of a flame entering the channel connecting to the hopper, are triggered and block the passage.
How to draw up a drawing of a pellet burner correctly?
Before starting the independent design of a burner intended for processing pellet fuel, it is recommended to perform its individual drawing. The diagram must necessarily contain information about all nodes and details. In the drawing, you need to specify the main elements:
- fuel tank;
The scheme must contain all the necessary dimensions of these products. When making a drawing of a pellet burner with your own hands, you should remember that the detail of its execution depends on how reliable the device for processing fuel pellets will turn out to be.
Before starting to draw up the scheme, it is recommended to calculate the required dimensions of the hopper in advance. When performing the calculation, it should be taken into account what area the structure will heat. It is also worth noting that the parameters of the hopper have a direct impact on the frequency of its cleaning.
The fan operation is controlled by an electronic unit. When drawing up a diagram, you need to remember that the operability of the main nodes of the device depends on the availability of electricity.
How to make a solid fuel boiler with your own hands for long-term gorenje: drawings
The device and the principle of operation. How to make it with your own hands. Drawings and diagrams for self-production. Recommendations.
Thus, it is not so difficult to make a drawing of a pellet burner with dimensions with your own hands. If necessary, you can use a ready-made scheme, of which there are many on the Internet. But in such a situation, you need to choose a drawing that will meet specific conditions.
Pellet burner with your own hands: preparatory stage
Before starting the assembly of the burner, which processes granular fuel, you need to do some preparatory work. First of all, you need to calculate the area that will be heated by this device. Knowing this indicator, it will not be difficult to calculate the required power of the heating device. When calculating the power indicator of the pellet unit, the following factors are taken into account:
- the average annual temperature in a particular region;
- building area;
- ceiling height in the building;
- number of door and window openings;
- building materials, of which the walls, floor and ceiling are made.
Then you should prepare all the tools that will be used when assembling the pellet burner with your own hands. Video and photographic materials help to get an idea of this process, so it is recommended to study them in detail.
It is necessary to determine the indicator of the thermal transfer resistance of the materials used. This coefficient will be required in the future to calculate the heat loss. The power of the heating equipment must be at least 10% higher than the heat loss.
Useful information! There are special online calculators that allow you to determine the power of the boiler. They can be easily found on the Internet using the browser search bar.
Experts recommend purchasing ready-made pellet burners. The price of these devices varies from 50 to 200 thousand rubles. It is quite difficult to make such a device, since many working nuances need to be taken into account. The purchased models are also equipped with the necessary thermal sensors, which makes their operation convenient and safe.
How to make a homemade pellet burner: basic recommendations
The most important structural element that is part of the pellet burner is the basket. When self–manufacturing such an element, it should be remembered that there is one common problem – the jamming of granules in the back wall, which is located at an angle and has slots. To solve the problem, you need to perform the slots differently. The standard version takes into account solid slots, but it is recommended to make a more cellular structure.
The ideal size of the rear wall slots should be 2 mm smaller than the size of the secondary fuel pellets. The gap located between the back wall and the bottom of the basket must be at least 6 mm. The front wall also has slits, but in this case they must be solid.
Before working, it is recommended to study the video materials demonstrating the assembly of the pellet burner. Reviews of various devices made with your own hands will also help you choose the right device option.
Under the bottom of the basket, which is part of the burner, there is a channel. It is necessary for secondary air. The height of the channel should be approximately 29 mm. A deviation of 1 mm is allowed here. The back wall itself is not perpendicular, but inclined. The angle of inclination is 45°.
The price of a pellet burner purchased ready-made is several times higher than the cost of the assembled version. Thus, the independent manufacture of this device can significantly save finances.
The size of the basket with a tray is selected taking into account individual needs. In this case, it is necessary to focus on the indicator that determines how much fuel will be processed in 1 hour of burner operation. The best option is a device with dimensions of 13×13 cm. The depth of such a basket should be approximately 10-12 cm. Such a device allows you to burn about 2-3 kg of granular fuel in 1 hour.
Making a hopper for a pellet burner with your own hands
The second necessary element of any burner installed on heating equipment is a hopper. The most common problem that occurs during the operation of homemade devices is associated with the penetration of flame into this structure. In order to assemble a reliable bunker, it is recommended to use ready-made drawings of popular bunkers from Teplodar or Pelletron. A pellet burner can be made of any power, but it is best to take as an example standard devices for 15 kW.
The volume of the hopper is also selected individually. You can make a box that will hold 17 or 34 kg of granular fuel. For the manufacture of the combustion chamber, a material such as stainless steel is traditionally used. Moreover, its thickness should be at least 2 mm.
Pay attention! The steel walls are joined together through the use of welding equipment.
The dimensions of the hopper are borrowed from any suitable model (for example, Pelletron 15). The pellet burner includes a secondary air channel, which is best done in the shape of the letter “G”. This will significantly increase the efficiency of the working device.
In addition, it is necessary to provide the burner with a blowdown. This will make it possible to simplify its launch, as the reaction to the draft in the chimney structure will be reduced. For a device with a power of 15 kW, fans with 20 watts are suitable. Experts recommend buying a fan, which is called a snail. This is due to the fact that the operation of such a device is the easiest to regulate.
Further arrangement of the pellet boiler with your own hands
The assembly of the device body is carried out in several stages. You can handle this task on your own, but you need to clearly understand the nuances of the work. The body is best performed in a horizontal plane. This is due to the fact that such an arrangement allows you to achieve maximum efficiency of the equipment.
As a material for the manufacture of the housing, it is recommended to use brick (fireclay). The process looks pretty simple. It is necessary to assemble the box and place the heat exchanger inside it. It is worth noting that the brick case is made without an upper cover. The heat exchanger must have outlets for connecting heat supply pipes.
Do not forget that the burner should be equipped with a special controller. Pellet burners can also be completely mechanical, but in this case it is much more difficult to set them up. The regulation is carried out taking into account the individual characteristics of the device and the area of the heated room.
The use of bricks for the installation of the housing is recommended for the reason that it has good insulating qualities and is able to accumulate heat to a greater extent than other common materials such as steel and cast iron. Photos of burners and other heating equipment can be easily found on the Internet.
First of all, the heat exchanger is manufactured. To do this, it is necessary to prepare pipes with a rectangular cross section. Then they need to be cut (according to the drawing) into pieces having the required length. After that, the individual segments are connected to each other using welding. It is required to ensure the supply of pipes to the heat exchanger. Then a chimney with an ash pan is installed.
How can I automate the process and configure the pellet burner myself?
Pellet homemade boilers have one feature – the absence of a device in the design that provides an influx of natural thrust. Without traction, as you know, it is impossible to maintain a flame inside the device, so you will need to install a fan. To ensure the smooth functioning of the boiler, an auger is also used, which is responsible for delivering fuel from the hopper to the combustion chamber.
In order to fully automate the workflow and, if necessary, achieve its adjustment, it is necessary to integrate a controller into the design. Its role is the control unit of the pellet burner.
Pay attention! Mechanical control is performed by means of a simple regulator.
The main task that ensures the normal operation of heating equipment is to achieve a balance between the two main indicators. The first of them is the volume of granular fuel, and the second is the rate of air intake. If it is possible to correctly adjust these indicators, then the flame will evenly heat up the heat exchanger.
All the necessary indicators can be adjusted using the control module of the burner. What is it? The control unit provides full control over the operation of the heating unit. Of course, the best option is to purchase a new device.
Purchased models have the ability to quickly connect to the main working elements of the pellet boiler. As a result, the controller will regulate the feed rate of granular fuel, as well as the fan speed. The display, which is located on the control unit, allows you to configure the pellet burner.
It is worth noting that the auger must have a sensor that controls the need to supply granular fuel. It acts as follows: detects when the auger is full and sends a signal to the equipment. After that, the supply of pellets is suspended.
Zota Fox 25 pellet burner: a reliable and efficient model with a wide range of functionality
A pellet burner of this type is used in boilers of the Zota brand of the Fox series. It is used in heating units, the design of which does not include a plate made of cast iron material. To date, such a burner has proven itself only from the best side. It is characterized by efficiency and reliability, as well as a long operational life.
The Zota Fox pellet burner processes granular fuel. The size of each pellet used in this case ranges from 6 to 8 mm. The power of this unit is regulated by an automatic system. This indicator can be different (from 5 to 25 kW).
The installation of a pellet burner Zota on a solid fuel heating boiler allows you to automate its workflow. Equipment equipped with a granule processing unit has certain advantages:
- reducing the cost of heating residential buildings;
- increasing the duration of operation when loading one portion of granular fuel;
- maintaining the required temperature in the room.
Useful information! The power indicator of the burner used for processing pellets is determined depending on the area of the heated room. It is worth noting that the device with a capacity of 1 kW is able to provide heat to a room with an area of 10 m2.
The burner power is adjusted automatically. For this purpose, a special control module is provided in the design. Zota Fox pellet burners (5-25 kW) have many additional functions that are not difficult to activate and configure on the control panel. These include automatic ignition of granular fuel, quick start and shutdown, automatic burner cleaning and other modes.
Safety in such a device is realized by a sensor that regulates the gorenje temperature of the fuel. Also, this device can be connected to a GSM module or a thermostat installed in a heated room. The cost of such a burner is approximately 75 thousand rubles.
Automatic pellet burner Teplodar APG-25
This device is automatic. It has many advantages. The products of this company are of high quality and have a long service life. A burner of this type is implemented together with a hopper, which is delivered disassembled. In addition to the hopper, the kit includes a screw that delivers pellets, as well as a control panel.
This model has many advantages. One of them is the ease of installation. If desired and with certain skills, you can connect such a model in just 30 minutes. Pellet burners Teplodar require pre-setting, which is made in accordance with the needs. You should not fill the hopper too often (2 times a week is enough).
In this case, the ashtray is cleaned of combustion products no more than 2 times a week. As a rule, only once is enough. It is worth noting that, in addition to the APG-25, there are more powerful modifications produced by this manufacturer. For example, the APG-42 model has become widespread.
These devices are installed on Cooper brand heating equipment. Pellet burners of this type are equipped with an improved auger, thereby increasing the overall reliability of the design and its operational life. The control panel has a convenient and clear display on which all the necessary operating parameters of the heating equipment are indicated.
Thus, in order to manufacture a burner that processes pellet pellets, it is required to first calculate the power and prepare a drawing. During operation, it is necessary to be careful, since any mistakes made during the assembly of the structure can lead to the fire of pellets in the hopper.