Manual hydraulic presses: features of highly efficient devices
A modern auto repair shop should be equipped with a special device in the form of a hydraulic press. With the help of such a tool, the dismantling of car parts, the manufacture and adjustment of the shape of auxiliary metal blanks and a number of other technological operations are carried out. You can learn about how to choose the right manual hydraulic presses, about the characteristic features of the device and the areas of its use from this article.
What is a hydraulic press: description of the device
The inventor of the hydraulic press is Joseph Bram, who patented his discovery in 1795. Initially, the device was used to produce vegetable oil, squeeze juice from grapes and baling hay. Today, such a special installation is used for processing metal elements and workpieces, with its help, plastic, plywood and rubber are processed.
The device is often used in auto repair shops for bending and compressing materials, pressing and pressing bearings, when performing major repairs of gearboxes, suspensions, and the power plant of the car. No significant effort is required when using the device.
The press includes a frame with a bed, two hydraulic cylinders that differ in diameter, a hydraulic pump and a pressure gauge. Both cylinders are connected to each other. Inside each of them contains a special mineral oil. In appearance, the device resembles a jack that works according to the laws of hydraulics.
Important! The frame of the hydraulic press must be made of thick steel, which has a positive effect on the value of the maximum load threshold.
The control of the force required to process the workpieces is carried out by a pressure gauge. The presence of control and measuring equipment allows you to adjust the load force, which is necessary for a high-power tool.
The hydraulic press can be manual, pneumohydraulic or containing an electric drive. The manual device develops a force of up to 20 tons. It is mainly used in small workshops and garages. The structure of the pneumohydraulic product includes a hydraulic amplifier and a pneumatic cylinder. Develops the force of such a hydraulic press of 40 tons. Models with electric drive are used in production. The maximum possible force is 100 tons for such hydraulic presses.
Design of a manual hydraulic press
The hydraulic press for metal consists of the following elements. A container is used to pump the working fluid into the hydraulic cylinder. Safe operation of the device is ensured by the presence of a shut-off valve and a discharge valve. The mechanism is powered by a special lever that supplies fluid to the hydraulic cylinder chamber. This is carried out as a result of the movement of the piston, the rod of which creates a force that affects the executive body of the device.
A distinctive feature of the manual press is the use of a lever mechanism by which the rod can be installed in a certain position, depending on the nature of the technological operation. For presses with high productivity, a foot drive is installed.
As a drive, a manual hydraulic pump is used here, which performs reciprocating movements of the working element of the device. It consists of a housing, a handle and a liquid vessel. The hydraulic cylinder can be plunger or piston, which depends on the working fluid used for the press. If an aqueous emulsion is used, the first type of device is installed. For viscous mineral oil, a piston cylinder of a hydraulic press is required.
Important! A manual hydraulic press can be used for parts that are located in hard-to-reach places of structures.
The principle of operation of the hydraulic press
Next, let’s look at how a hydraulic press works. The principle of operation is based on Pascal’s law, which determines that pressure can be transferred to any point of the liquid without change. When acting on the piston, the force is transferred through the working fluid of a vessel with a smaller diameter to a cylinder with a larger cross section. This contributes to an increase in the applied force by as many times as the area of the piston of the larger vessel exceeds the area of the smaller hydraulic cylinder.
The pressure in cylinders with different cross sections depends on the surface area of the piston and the applied force. If a small force is applied to a small cylinder, it will be possible to obtain significant resistance from a larger vessel. To achieve better results, the smaller piston must move a greater distance.
The principle of operation of a hydraulic press can be compared with the principle of operation of a mechanical lever. The force transmitted over his shoulder increases in proportion to the ratio of the lengths of the shoulders (large and small). In hydraulic devices, a liquid acts as such a lever. The applied force will be increased in proportion to the areas of the working surfaces of the hydraulic cylinders.
Characteristic features of the operation of hydraulic presses
The manual hydraulic press for metal is characterized by a number of advantages. With the help of such a device, operations of varying complexity can be carried out, performing them quickly and with high accuracy. This is due to the effect of high fluid pressure, which allows precise changes in the shape of the workpieces, recreating complex product configurations.
The structure does not include devices that protect against overload, which simplifies the operation of the tool and contributes to its low cost. When using the device, it is possible to perform a smooth adjustment of the working force and keep the selected parameter for a long time. The pressure value is not affected by the position of the movable desktop. The hydraulic installation allows you to change the parameters of the length and height of the working stroke.
What does the press look like and why is it needed? With the help of a manual device, it is possible to install and disassemble elements of bearing assemblies, shafts, bushings. The device makes it possible to carry out stamping and calibration of metal parts. A manual hydraulic press is used to adjust and change the configuration of metal products. The device is a universal tool that can not only be used in car repair shops, but also operated in repair shops, home workshops and garages.
The machine can work in various conditions. Unlike a stationary device with impressive dimensions, such a tool does not take up much space, which saves space and eliminates the need to build a heavy base.
Independent use is characterized by maximum safety, simplicity and ease of operation, which helps to reduce labor costs. The hydraulic press has a democratic cost, which is supported by a long period of operation.
The disadvantages of the hydraulic press include the low speed of the working surface. It is impossible to eliminate such an error. This can cause a hydraulic shock when the working surface and the part come into contact, which will lead to a breakdown of the device.
Manual hydraulic presses: classification of equipment
Manual hydraulic presses can be classified according to a number of parameters. Based on the direction of movement of the working rod, there are models in which this element can move up or down. Most modern devices are equipped with a rod that moves down.
Depending on the dimensions of the hydraulic press, the floor and table type of device are distinguished. Various methods of influencing the mechanism that ensures the operation of the device are also applied to such a tool. The manual hydraulic press is operated by means of a manual pump, which in some models can be replaced by an electric hydraulic pump, which increases the productivity of the equipment. The floor tool has more impressive dimensions and is activated by means of a foot key.
Based on the type of construction, the manual hydraulic press machine can be horizontal or vertical. The devices differ in the direction of movement of the pressing plate. It can move horizontally or vertically.
Horizontal hydraulic sheet bending press is used for bending, cutting and straightening metal parts. A vertical hydraulic press is used for pressing and decompressing elements.
Useful advice! Horizontal manual hydraulic press can be used for waste disposal – pressing of waste paper, corrugated cardboard containers, textiles, plastic bottles, feathers, fluff and other elements.
The expansion of functionality is facilitated by the presence of various nozzles for the stem, which are included in the package of modern models of manual presses. The equipment has a good degree of mobility. Floor and table fixtures are equipped with special wheels that allow you to effortlessly move the tool to the location of the parts for their processing.
Which hydraulic press to buy: desktop or floor
Choosing a floor or table type of device, you should first of all decide what the press is needed for.
The floor fixture is distinguished by its impressive size. The tool is located on the floor. It is used for processing dimensional parts. The floor type of hydraulic press is often chosen by large service stations, whose main activity is car repair. Thanks to this device, the productivity of technological processes increases. In addition, the presence of a hydraulic press contributes to the expansion of the list of services provided.
Useful advice! For fast execution of technological processes requiring high power, it is more expedient to purchase an electric hydraulic press for the service station.
Floor hydraulic presses are selected based on the characteristics of the hydraulic cylinder and the design parameters where it is installed. An important factor is the maximum value of the force that the tool can exert on the workpiece being processed. This criterion varies between 5-20 tons. The effective operation of the floor press depends on the size of the distance that the rod overcomes, acting on the part.
Important! When choosing a hydraulic press, you should study the technical parameters of the tool, which are displayed in the equipment passport.
Characteristic features of the desktop hydraulic press for garage
The desktop press is more stable. It features an extended range of desktop adjustment. This makes it possible to process parts of different sizes.
A desktop hydraulic press is often chosen for a home workshop or garage. The maximum load capacity of the device reaches 12 tons. Such a tool is characterized by small dimensions and weight, which facilitates its operation. It can be installed on a workbench, which will save useful space.
When choosing a device, you should focus on the size and weight of the device, the type and characteristics of the working platform, which differs in different design and dimensions. The structure can be equipped with slots for mounting additional elements. An important question is how much the press costs. Floor tools can be purchased for 30 thousand rubles. The price of a table-type hydraulic press averages 10-20 thousand rubles.
Some models have the ability to shift the press along the frame relative to the stem. The complete set of the tool may include shock-absorbing elements. They are necessary to compensate for the excessive pressure exerted on the structure.
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When choosing a hydraulic press of any type, it is also necessary to take into account the material of manufacture and the thickness of the base plate of the device where the part is installed during its processing.
Basic rules of operation of a hydraulic manual press
Having decided why you need a press, you can purchase the model you like. However, for effective and long-lasting operation of the device, it is necessary to adhere to certain rules of operation of the device. First of all, attention is paid to the correct installation of the tool. All the necessary information on this issue is described in the accompanying document to the device, which is given by the manufacturer.
Let’s consider the main recommendations that should be followed to avoid frequent breakdowns of the press and the need to repair it. Before each use and during operation, it is required to check the level of the working fluid in the cylinders. The pressure value that the hydraulic cylinder is capable of creating will depend on the filling capacity of the vessel. It is necessary to regularly lubricate the rubbing and moving elements of the structure.
Periodically, the condition of the sealing rings is checked. Over time, these elements lose their elasticity. Before starting work, it is necessary to check the reliability of fixing the part to be processed.
Malfunctions may occur during the operation of an industrial press. Information about the possible causes of their occurrence and the rules for eliminating them is contained in the instructions for the tool.
Other field of activity of presses: hydraulic press for cable lugs
The hydraulic press is widely used in crimping cable lugs for high-voltage lines. With the help of the device, the process of mechanical compression of the connection is carried out, which after processing will have greater strength, conduct electric current well, do not overheat, which reduces the likelihood of contact damage and accidents.
The manual hydraulic tip press is designed to work with cables with a cross section of 5-400 mm2. When choosing a tool, some device parameters should be taken into account. The press must have a pressure limiting valve. Such devices are more reliable because they prevent exceeding the permissible pressure.
An important criterion is the type of pressing head, which can be open or closed. The first option provides more convenient and simple operation at any cable length. To work with a closed-type press, it is first necessary to open the stopper, get the matrix, insert the wire and the tip, close the device. Only after such manipulations is the cable crimping performed.
When choosing a hydraulic press, it is important to take into account the diameter of the working section of the cable. Depending on this, all tool models can be divided into types. The PG-70 variety is used for wires with a cross section of 4-70 mm2. Type PG-120 is designed for cable with a diameter of 10-120 mm2, PRG-240 – 16-240 mm2. The hydraulic press PGR-300 is capable of working with a cable with a cross section of 16-300 mm2. The PG-1000 model is designed for wires with a diameter of 400-1000 mm2.
All models of the tool can work with copper or aluminum wires. Many modern devices are equipped with a high-speed mechanism and rotating heads. Manual hydraulic presses of the KW domestic manufacturer are very popular. This is due to the democratic cost of the instrument and the high quality of its execution.
Important! The kit of the hydraulic press KW includes eight replaceable dies for crimping.
What can be used to make a hydraulic pressing machine
The most popular device for the manufacture of a hydraulic press is a jack, whose actions are based on the principle of operation of hydraulics. According to the laws of physics, the liquid in it under pressure does not decrease its volume. Therefore, when exposed to the workpiece, there is no loss of power. In addition, the jack is characterized by high efficiency, thanks to which you can count on a significant compression force.
To make a homemade device, you can use the scheme of a hydraulic press from a jack, which can be found on the Internet. At the first stage, the frame of the structure is created from a steel profiled pipe, metal corners and a plate. A jack is installed between the thrust plate and the platform, and it is necessary that, when the rod tip is pushed in, it is inside the retainer. The base of the tool is attached to the movable stop by means of bolts.
For crimping metal workpieces, the product is placed on a platform, the jack rises when exposed to its lever. At the same time, the pressing process takes place. It is important to know how to lower the hydraulic jack, which must be done at the end of the work. For this purpose, the tool is equipped with a bypass valve. It is a round head with protruding shoulders. It must be loosened, as a result of which the device will go down.
The jack also has a shut-off valve that pumps oil into the piston when closed. The normal operation of the device indicates a sufficient amount of fluid in the system. If the tool started working slowly or stopped completely, it means that there is not enough working fluid in it. It is necessary to know how to fill the oil in the hydraulic jack. To do this, there is a special filler plug on the device body, which should be unscrewed. Next, the tank is filled to the desired volume. At the end of the procedure, the jack is pumped.
The manual hydraulic press is a multifunctional equipment that is widely used in car service stations. It is an indispensable assistant for a home workshop. When choosing a device, it is important to determine the scope of its use. For household purposes, a device designed for a force of up to 20 tons is sufficient, and for a large service station, a hydraulic press of 50 tons is needed. You can save money by making a jack press with your own hands.