LED street lamp: lighting of the future
Energy-saving technologies are developing rapidly, for example, an incandescent lamp was replaced by a more economical fluorescent lamp in the last century. Its main competitor soon became an LED street lamp. A lantern with such lamps gives maximum savings in electricity and, accordingly, funds. This article will tell you about the features of this type of lighting on the streets, the species diversity and the criteria for choosing LED lamps.
The history of the development of LED street lighting fixtures
Street lighting appeared in the XVI century. Lanterns with candles were installed in the affluent quarters of London. Two centuries later, kerosene lamps replaced candles. This type of lanterns was much cheaper, and the light radiated brighter. Street lighting is becoming widespread, it is organized in all major cities. In the XIX century, gas lanterns were invented, which were distinguished, on the one hand, by colossal economy, and on the other, by increased explosiveness. In some cities, this type of street lighting existed until the middle of the last century.
Illumination on a global scale began with the advent of the twentieth century, when electricity was invented. Incandescent lamps did not give up leading positions for a long time, until they were replaced by gas-discharge and fluorescent lamps. They are still actively used throughout the progressive world. Gradually, they are beginning to be replaced by more economical and environmentally friendly LED lamps. LEDs were invented about two decades ago, and their popularity is rapidly increasing. Most developed countries have already switched to LED street lighting.
Lamps of this type guarantee a good level of illumination and provide decent cost savings. LED street lighting lamps are popular among owners of private houses and suburban areas. They are used as illumination of reservoirs, trees, flower beds and fences. Recently, such devices have been widely used on highways, streets and roads, in the courtyards of multi-storey buildings, to illuminate commercial and administrative buildings, in parks and other recreation areas.
It’s important to know! In English, lamps on diodes denote LED, which means “light-emitting diode”. The abbreviation has also taken root in Russian. Thus, LED and LED are synonymous words.
Advantages of LED Street lighting
The effect of light emission from a solid body was discovered at the beginning of the last century in England, but for a long time the development was not improved and was excessively expensive. It was only at the beginning of the XXI century that the technology was simplified, and lamps of this type were put into mass production. They differ significantly from their predecessors, having a number of specific advantages, among which the following stand out:
Disadvantages of LED lamps for street lighting
The list of disadvantages is much smaller than the list of advantages, but they are still there, the main ones are as follows:
Useful advice! The high quality of LED lights directly affects the cost of the devices. The better the materials used in the manufacture, the higher the price of the device, the longer the service life of the devices will be, even in the harshest conditions.
The principle of operation of LED street lighting lamps
LEDs have a fairly high level of efficiency. This characteristic distinguishes this type of luminaires from gas-discharge lamps, in which light is emitted as a result of gas electric discharge. If we make a comparison in numbers, then the following picture emerges: a lamp on diodes with a power of 10 watts is equal in characteristics to an incandescent lamp of 40 or 60 watts. This feature arises due to the transition of conductivity between different types of semiconductors and the occurrence of recombination of photons with electrons.
Simply put, electrical energy is converted into light energy. At the same time, the process is low-cost, since it is based on the latest achievements and discoveries in physics. Thus, energy-consuming short-lived incandescent lamps and unreliable gas-discharge lamps have been replaced by more reliable, super-powerful, compact, and most importantly, economical lighting devices.
In addition, the technology of manufacturing lamps for street lighting allows you to change the color and warmth of the lamp light. Such technical characteristics justify the high popularity of LEDs both in the illumination of private houses and for outdoor lighting of city streets and highways.
As for the design of street lighting fixtures with LEDs, it differs significantly from the device of lamps for indoor lighting. Due to the different structure of electrical installations, the devices have a different mounting principle. Street lamps are designed for high placement and vertical lighting. The LED lamp itself is a set of LEDs that are mounted in an aluminum housing with special protection.
LED street lamp: classification and species diversity
The devices used for street lighting are characterized by a wide range of applications and, accordingly, have their own classification system. Lamps are grouped by type similarity, they are divided into different types and models depending on specific characteristics. Light devices on diodes are classified according to the following main features:
Useful advice! It is the last three criteria, such as functionality, power and design, that underlie the species classification of devices and their choice for lighting in private conditions.
Protection index and marking of outdoor lamps
In order to determine the level of protection of luminaires from external factors, a special international Ingress Protection (IP) system was developed. This indicator includes only two digits, where the first indicates the degree of protection against dust penetration, and the second is the index of protection from moisture ingress. The degree of protection, as well as other specific criteria, is determined using a special international marking table. The marking is applied to all mass-produced products, without it the goods are not allowed to go on sale. The index is a specific set of letters and numbers, where each character has its own meaning.
The first letter indicates the type of lamp installed in the lamp (incandescent, fluorescent, mercury or LED). The second symbol indicates the type of installation of the device, for example, suspended, cantilever, support, floor, recessed, ceiling or street LED lamp on the wall. The third letter defines the purpose of the device (for example, for street lighting or for industrial facilities).
This is followed by a number indicating the serial number, and the next one indicates the number of bulbs in the lamp. The sixth value is the maximum power of the device. The modification of the product is determined by a three-digit number located seventh in the total mark. The cipher of letters and numbers at the end of the marking indicates the climatic conditions in which the use of the product is permissible.
LED devices for outdoor use come in different types and are used for decorative illumination or main lighting. Also, the marking may indicate additional functions, for example, that this device is a street LED lamp with a motion sensor.
LED street lights: scope of application and design features
The main distinguishing feature of the lantern is the ability to evenly disperse the flow of light. The devices come in different shapes and sizes, but the main difference in the list of models is their power, which determines the location of the lamp.
In the lighting of highways and highways, lanterns with a power of 400 watts are used. For roads of secondary importance, lamps with this indicator from 150 to 250 watts are installed. On sidewalks, pedestrian zones, as well as in parks, squares, courtyards of high-rise buildings, on sidewalks, it is permissible to use lanterns with a power of up to 150 watts. For road lighting, the most suitable are reflex LED street lights that can change the direction of the light flow.
In order to properly organize lighting, using this type of lamps, it is necessary to learn a number of rules. You can install such devices yourself only on a small plot of land. Therefore, it is recommended to entrust all the work, starting with the choice of the power of the lanterns, to professionals. They will design street lighting, calculate the overall brightness of the lamps, and determine the technology for controlling the lighting system. The specialists themselves, according to the project, will pick up the lights and carry out their installation.
Useful advice! It is not recommended to repair LED lamps yourself, especially since manufacturers install a long-term warranty on most products with diodes.
The device of diode street lights is similar to the structure of an LED flashlight. The design includes a housing with a reflective element, a block of diodes, a heat sink radiator. The space between the parts is filled with a special thermal paste. Outdoor lighting fixtures are provided with durable ceiling lights. To adjust the voltage, a transformer is installed in the middle.
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Cantilever LED street lamp: practicality and reliability
Cantilever lamps are devices that are widely used to provide high–quality street lighting. Most often they are installed on highways, open areas for various purposes, at gas stations and adjacent territories. A distinctive feature of such lamps is their design, and the lighting device is attached to a support or other surface using a console.
Currently, cantilever LED street lighting fixtures are rightly considered the most popular in this category. Devices of this type are most suitable for outdoor lighting, while significantly saving electricity and money. According to the calculations of experts, when analyzing the most suitable devices in the ratio of quality and price, cantilever LED street lamps occupy a leading position.
In addition, manufacturers usually equip such devices with an additional dust-proof function, which allows the use of lanterns on consoles not only on paved streets, but also on peripheral dirt roads far from the city. The lamps have high moisture protection characteristics, which is important when lighting streets during precipitation.
The 100W LED outdoor console lamp is a real innovation in lighting. The device is several times more economical than numerous predecessors. In addition, it is easy to use, and the scope of application is very wide. Such devices are installed at stadiums, sports grounds and hotel complexes.
A typical representative of modern console models is the LED street lamp “Cobra”. It does not require special maintenance and is great for lighting different objects.
Industrial LED lamps: characteristics and scope of application
Due to the high degree of illumination, economical electricity consumption and long service life, LED lamps are widely used in industry. In particular, they are installed:
- in the courtyards of the centers;
- on open industrial sites;
- in workshops and on assembly lines;
- on the territory of factories and plants;
- for lighting open warehouses;
- in exhibition complexes;
- at train stations, airfields and ports.
Useful advice! A number of experts assure that according to such characteristics as brightness, efficiency, quality of light flow, efficiency and price, LED street lamps are inferior to metal halide lamps. But as for the service life, according to this criterion, they really surpass all other analogues. Therefore, even before buying the device, everything must be weighed and carefully calculated.
The industrial group of LED lamps is represented by a wide range of models that are able to create effective illumination of large areas, while ensuring uniform coverage of the light flow. Devices of different power can be installed at different heights. The most popular in this category are street LED spotlights 100 watts. The price of the products is quite high, which is justified by high quality and economical energy consumption. Thus, lamps on diodes pay off quickly enough.
An important advantage of industrial lamps is the independent adjustment of illumination angles, which allows you to solve any problem in creating effective lighting of objects.
Types of lamps depending on the placement of lamps for street lighting
Taking into account the location , the lamps are divided into the following types:
- suspended or ceiling;
- wall mounted;
- devices for installation on poles.
Suspended or ceiling LED street lamps have the appearance of a sealed casing with an LED hidden inside. Such devices are suspended from a beam located horizontally at a high height, using a special cable or chain. In appearance, this is a fragile structure, but at the same time it is able to withstand all the loads that outdoor operation involves, in particular, frost and heat tests, increased humidity from heavy rains and icing in winter.
The wall-mounted LED street lamp is considered a universal device that can be easily mounted on virtually any vertical surface that can withstand the load in the form of a lantern and fasteners. Such a device is perfect for use on the territory of the house in a private yard. It can be not only an object of lighting, but also a decorative element. Such lanterns are made in all possible variations, which allows them to be installed in different stylistic design.
All wall-mounted LED street lamps are moisture-proof, they have a degree of protection IP 44. Thus, splashes of water do not fall into the middle of the devices, which allows them to be installed not only under a canopy, but also in an open area.
Also among the numerous types of these devices should be called embedded LED street lamps. Such devices are mounted in elements of street furniture, walls of buildings. Their installation definitely requires a professional approach.
Battery-powered LED lights for street lighting
In addition to the various signs of classification of lamps listed above, it is necessary to note one more – this is the power source from which the devices operate. Direct connection to the uninterruptible power supply is the best option, but in the absence of such an opportunity, the problem is perfectly solved by batteries and batteries.
Useful advice! When choosing a lamp for the street, you need to pay attention to the presence of additional functions of the device, such as equipping with a solar battery, a light and motion sensor or remote control.
The main feature of such devices is full energy autonomy. The power supply can be ordinary batteries, different in shape and size, as well as batteries that provide for recharging after a certain time of use. The battery pack can be built into the lamp or located separately from it. Its location determines the way the LED lamp is recharged.
Speaking about autonomous light emitting devices, it is necessary to mention their separate category – solar-powered LED street lamps. To recharge them, you do not need access to the power grid, it is carried out during sunlight on special panels.
It is autonomous devices that are most often used in the design of landscape design and as emergency lighting.
Thus, any type of LED street lamp has a certain list of advantages. At the same time, the complexity of the installation compensates for the lack of maintenance during operation. A light source of this type will not only provide good lighting, but also significantly save money spent on the use of electricity by other types of lamps.