Laying of underfloor heating under the tile: technology of self-installation of the system
When planning repairs in the house, it is worth thinking not only about the design of a stylish and modern interior, but also about how to ensure comfortable living conditions. One of these methods is laying a warm floor under the tile. Let’s consider how to carry out all the necessary work as simply as possible and what to pay attention to in the process of self-installation.
Advantages of installing underfloor heating under the tile
Underfloor heating has a lot of positive characteristics and, subject to compliance with all recommendations, is able to have an extremely positive impact on many aspects, increasing the comfort level of everyone living in the house.
First of all, this is due to the uniformity of heat distribution in the room. Due to the fact that the bulk of the warm air is located at the bottom, the overall temperature in the room will be as favorable as possible, because, as you know, warm air is lighter and tends to rise up.
Interesting! From a medical point of view, the distribution of air in such a way that the legs are warm and the head is cool is considered the best option.
In the case of using such heating devices as batteries and converters, the air moves more actively in the room, due to which the number of drafts increases, and, accordingly, the amount of dust raised. Underfloor heating works in a different way, which also has a positive effect on health.
As for ceramic tiles, as a finishing material laid on top of such a system, this is an excellent solution for several reasons:
- high level of thermal conductivity;
- long service life;
- resistance to temperature changes;
- ability to withstand severe mechanical loads;
- resistance to water and steam.
Laying underfloor heating under the tile: features of the choice of the system
The high thermal conductivity of the tile makes it an ideal option for installing a underfloor heating system. Moreover, in this case, any type of system can be used: electric or water. But in order to choose the most suitable option, each owner must answer a few questions in advance:
- is the underfloor heating system the main source of heating or will it be used only as an additional one;
- is a concrete screed provided and if so, what thickness does it have;
- an autonomous or central heating system is provided in the house.
Having answered these questions and having considered the characteristics and advantages of each option, it is possible to make and carry out the most effective installation of underfloor heating under the tile. Let’s consider all the options available today.
Water underfloor heating under the tile: features and advantages
Water underfloor heating is the most widespread option today, which is widely used for the arrangement of bathrooms, kitchens and corridors. In this case, a special system consisting of water pipes is laid directly into the floor screed.
At the same time, several layers are necessarily laid, each of which has its own meaning and role in this design:
- a layer of thermal insulation material is laid on top of the base, which does not allow the system to waste heat in vain, warming up the floors;
- a reinforcing mesh is placed on top, which should give the base strength;
- then there is a pipe system that is directly responsible for the circulation of warm water;
- another layer of screed (cement-sand or concrete) is designed to protect the structure from loads;
- at the end, an adhesive composition is applied, on which the ceramic tile is fixed.
If the owners decided to make such underfloor heating under the tile with their own hands, then it is important to observe some nuances in the process of work. For example, the gap between the metal-plastic pipes of the system should be from 10 to 30 cm. At the same time, fixation with plastic clamps must be carried out.
Useful advice! In order to increase the strength and quality of the water heating system, in those places where the deformation seam is located on the pipes, it is recommended to put on a corrugation.
During the installation of the system itself, it is necessary to avoid the appearance of joints, so the inlet and outlet parts of the pipe should be located in the collector. In addition, before you start pouring the top layer of the screed, a damping tape should be installed around the perimeter of the room. It serves to compensate for those expansions that will occur as a result of expansion processes associated with changes in temperature conditions.
After the installation of the pipe system is completed, it is necessary to conduct a check, and only after that you can proceed to pouring the rough surface. It is important that the thickness of the screed layer is at least 30 mm.
If all calculations, as well as the procedure for laying a warm water floor under the tile were made correctly, such a solution will save up to 10% of the thermal resources needed for monthly heating of the room.
Features of the device of electric underfloor heating under the tile
Once upon a time, only wealthy people could afford to buy an electric warm under the tile. But today this technology has become available to almost everyone, especially considering the fact that its installation is capable of saving up to 35% of the resources consumed. Such a high indicator became available, first of all, due to the possibility of installing a thermostat.
As an example, we can consider the option of arranging a underfloor heating in the bathroom using a heating mat. Having an area of 0.65 m2, it consumes no more electricity than an ordinary light bulb. At the same time, a one-and-a-half meter mat will require a little more (like 3 light bulbs). If we compare larger mats with household appliances, then a three-meter one is comparable to a computer, and a six-meter one is comparable to a refrigerator.
Important! The power consumption in this case directly depends on the speed at which the surface cools down. In other words, high-quality thermal insulation can significantly reduce costs.
The price of a warm electric tile floor depends on how high-quality and reliable the option was chosen, as well as on how many conductive cores are located in the heating cable. There are two options: single-core and two-core. Moreover, the first option can be used only in non-residential premises, since it emits a large number of electromagnetic waves. But in the second case, two conductive elements are able to compensate for each other’s fields.
Electric underfloor heating: varieties and classification
There are several different technologies on the modern market that allow you to effectively heat the floor. Depending on the element used for heating, the following types are distinguished:
Each of these methods is safe enough to be used in residential areas. In addition, these modern technologies have a rather long operational life (up to 20 years). All options are designed to reduce energy consumption, and can be used both as a primary and as an additional source of heat. So even in the case of installing underfloor heating in the bathtub under the tile, the savings will be noticeable immediately.
Underfloor heating under tiles using heating mats
This is one of the newest methods that has become widespread quite recently. But every day its popularity increases, which is due to the ease of installation and excellent technical characteristics. In this case, a special cable system is used in the form of a heating mat, which can be laid during the installation of a new floor or the reconstruction of an old one.
The technology provides for the use of a special two-core shielded cable, the thickness of which is 2.5 mm. And the installation procedure is as simple as possible: using a cement-sand screed, the heating element is poured on the surface of the base.
Underfloor heating under the tile using a heating cable
In this case, a special electric cable is used as a heating element, which is laid on the surface of the base with a snake. At the same time, a certain step must be observed and fixation is performed using the petals of the mounting tape. All this, including the corrugated tube and the thermal sensor, is poured with a concrete screed, the thickness of which is 3-5 cm.
Infrared underfloor heating under the tile: technology features
The main advantage of this method is the ability to mount the system not only on the floor, but also on the walls, and even on the ceiling. The heating element of this type is made using a special technology that allows you to make a warm floor without screed.
The film underfloor heating under the tile provides for a special coating, which eliminates the need to fill the screed and makes the installation process easier. As a finishing floor covering, in this case, not only tiles can be used, but also any other building material that can be found on sale today.
Bottom line: which underfloor heating is better under the tile
As mentioned earlier, the choice of the most suitable option should be based on the initially available room data. Each of the considered methods has its advantages and can be used for home improvement. For example, a water heating system can be connected to both an autonomous and centralized heating system. In addition, this option is most advantageous in terms of financial costs.
The maintenance costs of the water system are also low. However, this method is not always the best. For example, it is better to abandon such a solution in old houses, where the floor slabs are not designed for serious loads, which are fraught with the installation of such a system.
Electric heating is easier to install, and also has higher energy efficiency indicators. The surface of the coating heats up faster, and with proper thermal insulation, it can retain the accumulated heat for a long time.
Water underfloor heating with your own hands, video and description of the process
Description and video of the installation process of water underfloor heating. Its advantages and disadvantages are in contrast to other types.
Underfloor heating for tiles: prices for various types of equipment
The price of underfloor heating under the tile will vary depending on which option you prefer. So, you can order the installation of a heating cable at a price of 500 rubles/m2. Laying of heating mats will cost a little more expensive – from 800 rubles/ m2. Perhaps the most expensive procedure can be called the installation of a thermostat – about 1500 rubles.
As already mentioned, the cheapest option is a water underfloor heating under the tile. The price per m2 can start from 380 rubles. Therefore, if you want to install underfloor heating in the bathroom, the area of which is usually small, this task can be solved with a very modest budget.
How to make an electric underfloor heating with your own hands
In the case of laying underfloor heating under the tile, the installation technology allows for independent carrying out of all work. So if you wish, you can refuse to call the master, and do everything you need with your own hands.
Before making underfloor heating, it is necessary to carefully prepare the base, leveling it as thoroughly as possible. At the same time, it is not necessary to apply a new screed. It is quite acceptable to use an old concrete base, if it is sufficiently flat. In this case, you will only need to vacuum and wash the surface.
Useful advice! On sale you can find quick-drying mixtures for leveling the floor base. This option is acceptable, but only if it is not possible to wait for the drying of the usual composition, since its quality is significantly lower than that of the traditional cement-sand composition.
Next, the laying of the thermal insulation layer is carried out – an extremely important stage designed to ensure maximum savings of heat and money. The best material for this purpose is considered to be penofol. It is easily attached to the base with double-sided adhesive tape and at the same time has a thermal insulation coefficient of 0.049 W/mK.
Now you can proceed directly to the installation of the underfloor heating system. This procedure will depend on which of the above suggested methods you have chosen. At this stage, you should think about placing a temperature sensor, especially if you bought individual components, and not a ready-to-install kit. The sensor is inserted together with a power cable into a corrugated pipe, which is then poured with concrete from the outside.
Useful advice! The malfunction of the thermal sensor is the most common breakdown that owners of underfloor heating have to face. Therefore, it is very important to install it correctly in order to be able to replace it at any time in the future.
Installation of a film underfloor heating is carried out according to the same instructions, except for the need to fill the screed after installation.
How to independently check the serviceability of the underfloor heating
Before proceeding to the final stage of work – laying tiles, it is necessary to check the serviceability of the system. To do this, follow the following algorithm:
If all the indicators are normal and the system is working properly, then it remains only to pour a layer of screed (if necessary) and lay the tile.
The technology of laying tiles on the floor in the presence of a heating system
Having figured out how to fill the underfloor heating, it remains only to lay the tiles, which in this case will be the final coating. The installation procedure in this case practically does not differ from the traditional one, except for the need to purchase a special glue resistant to temperature rise. And in this matter, it is better to refuse to save money, since poor-quality material can cause the tile to simply fall off soon.
If we are talking about laying underfloor heating in the bathroom under the tile, it is important to pay attention to the aesthetic side, properly fitting the elements. To do this, it is better to place solid elements in open areas, and hide the trimmings under the bathroom or in other inconspicuous places. For simple and high-quality slicing, a Bulgarian is best suited.
Important! In the process of cutting tiles, it is extremely important to pay attention to your own safety. It is recommended to use protective equipment such as a respirator and glasses.
The first thing to do is to prepare the adhesive composition according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. After that, you can start laying, starting from the corner to apply glue with a toothed spatula. It is important that the adhesive solution fills all voids, and the layer thickness is at least 5 mm.
In order to lay the tile flat, you can use special crosses. At the same time, it is necessary to check for the horizontal evenness of all elements, and also make sure that the gaps between the elements are the same.
Also, do not take out the crosses immediately after the tile laying is completed. It is better to wait as long as necessary (usually this period is specified by the manufacturer). Cracks after complete drying need to be sealed with grout, using a spatula for this.
Useful advice! It is not necessary to turn on the floor heating until all the compounds (glue and grout) are completely dry. The same applies to the concrete screed, the drying period of which can range from two weeks to a month.
How to install underfloor heating with your own hands: video instructions
An excellent reference point for the installation of underfloor heating is a photo instruction that will allow you to consider each of the stages of work in even more detail and clearly demonstrate all the nuances. But still, the most complete information about the process can be obtained by reading the corresponding video lesson.