Irrigation system in the country: a variety of options for irrigation of plants
To facilitate the life of gardeners and gardeners, design engineers and craftsmen from the people are constantly inventing a variety of irrigation systems. There are many ways to water plants, starting with the use of a conventional watering can and ending with automatic irrigation systems. Which irrigation system in the country is preferable to use, how to properly organize the watering of the site, which methods of installing irrigation systems are the most popular – all this information is described in detail in this article.
Varieties of irrigation systems for cottages and vegetable gardens
Existing irrigation systems can be divided into four categories, each of which has characteristic advantages and disadvantages:
- surface watering;
- drip irrigation;
- intra-soil irrigation;
Useful advice! It is possible to organize several irrigation systems in the suburban area, since each crop needs a certain moisture regime.
Surface irrigation is a less expensive irrigation option. Water to the plant through the dug grooves is supplied directly from a hose, which can be connected to a centralized water supply system or to a barrel for watering in the country. You can buy a container of any capacity. The irrigation system is located on the surface of the earth, so its independent laying is not difficult. This method deprives the roots of some oxygen, which can be detrimental to plants. Therefore, it is not recommended to constantly use surface watering.
In-ground irrigation system for greenhouses
Intra-soil irrigation is carried out using an irrigation system, which is located under the soil layer at a depth of 30 cm. Mini-holes are made across the entire area of the pipes, through which water flows to the roots of plants. Such a system is most rational for green spaces, such as trees, fruit bushes, grapes. It is also successfully used in greenhouses, where regular digging is not carried out. However, it can also be used in a suburban area, planting annual plants depending on the location of the system.
This option promotes good oxygen access to the roots and does not require constant loosening of the soil. Underground irrigation is organized in areas with a shortage of water, since this option reduces its consumption by half in comparison with the surface option. Watering can be carried out from a watering tank in the country.
Useful advice! To minimize the possibility of clogging the holes in the pipeline, a filter should be installed at the beginning of the irrigation pipe.
The system can be stacked vertically at the time of planting a perennial plant. The planting pit is deeper by 30 cm and wider by 20-25 cm than is required for rooting the culture. The bottom is covered with a layer of rubble 20 cm high . The pipe is inserted vertically, plunging into the thickness of the rubble by 7-10 cm. The length of the segment is selected taking into account the protrusion of the part of the product above the ground by 10-12 cm. The pillow is filled with soil 10-15 cm thick . The open end is closed with a plug.
Watering is carried out from a watering can or hose directly into the pipe. Water flows directly to the root system of the plant, eliminating the need to moisten the topsoil. The irrigation rate depends on the climatic zone of the area. Automated watering can be organized for many plants of the same type.
Rain garden watering system: features of the option
When organizing a sprinkling system, water in the form of drops gradually moistens the soil near the plant at a certain angle. This process is carried out with the help of special sprinklers and sprinklers, which are installed in certain places of the suburban area at some distance from each other. For areas completely covered with vegetation, such as lawns and flower beds, rotating sprinklers are provided that evenly moisten the soil around them.
Sprinkling promotes gradual, high-quality and deep moistening of the soil, so that its structure is not damaged. With this method, the aboveground parts of the plant are saturated with moisture, which favors an increase in yield. This is especially true for strawberry plantations. In the case of the location of sprinkler nozzles under the crowns of trees, watering and washing of dust and insects from the leaves will be carried out simultaneously. In addition, if lawn grass is planted under the trees, this is the most rational way to moisten it.
When setting up the device, you should focus on maintaining a balance between the intensity of rain and the ability of the soil to absorb water. Moisture should have time to soak into the soil to eliminate the formation of puddles and dirt. This can lead to swimming of the earth’s surface, which after drying will be covered with a crust, which will prevent oxygen access to the roots of plants.
One of the disadvantages is that water spraying is carried out unevenly with strong gusts of wind and insufficient pressure in the main system. Also, water can fall not only on the beds, but also on the paths.
The sprinkler system can be stationary or portable. In the first variant, irrigation pipes are laid on top of the soil or mounted in the ground to a depth of 30-40 cm. In places where sprayers are installed, vertical sections of pipelines are brought to the required height. Sprinkler nozzles are attached at their ends.
When organizing portable irrigation, hoses are used for irrigation in the country. The best products are made of thermoplastics or PVC. Sprayers are installed at the ends of the hose. The products are placed in the required place for watering garden crops. For this system, it is convenient to organize automatic watering, which will be programmed to turn on at the most suitable time for watering – in the evening. By morning, the water will be absorbed, and in the afternoon, you can loosen the soil to ensure oxygen access to the roots of the plant.
The principle of operation and distinctive features of drip irrigation
Drip irrigation in the country with your own hands is the most economical and rational irrigation option. The principle of operation of the system is based on the flow of water in small portions directly to the roots of the plant through a drip tape connected to the irrigation pipe. This option is possible during the water supply to the central water supply for irrigation in the country. If it is served by the hour, then humidification will occur in the same way.
Such watering can be carried out from a storage tank for irrigation in the country, if there is no water in the main pipeline. This option will provide round-the-clock irrigation of the soil.
This method of irrigation does not prevent air access to the roots of the plant and does not contribute to the deterioration of the soil structure. In this case, it is possible to avoid over-drying or flooding of the earth and to abandon regular loosening of the soil. The main disadvantage of such an irrigation system is the high probability of clogging the pipe, which occurs as a result of small debris and soil particles entering its cavity. Therefore, the system needs periodic cleaning.
Such watering can be carried out using a drip tape, a rigid hose with small holes or small diameter plastic pipes. The elements are laid along the beds with plants and connected to a common pipe. To organize watering of several rows, a splitter is mounted, which is located at the beginning of the bed. It contributes to the uniform distribution of the tape segments. Around the trunk of the tree, the tape is laid in a spiral. Plastic pipes are usually installed along stationary beds. Previously, holes are made in them using a red-hot awl.
Irrigation system in the country depending on the water supply
Water supply to the irrigation system can be performed in one of the following ways:
- semi – automatic;
The first option is carried out depending on the wishes of the owner and is set by a special program. In this case, the watering start time is set or humidification sensors are installed, relative to which water will be supplied. You can buy such a system ready-made or organize automatic irrigation with your own hands.
When arranging an automatic system, a self-priming pump is necessarily used for watering a vegetable garden, a garden at home, a cottage, which pumps water from a container. When choosing the unit, you should pay attention to the frequency of engine adjustment and the possibility of smooth start. It is connected to the power-on timer that controls the operation of the pumping unit.
When organizing automatic irrigation in the country with your own hands, you can purchase a socket with a timer, which involves performing daily or weekly irrigation. This system is most often used for sprinkling. However, it can be organized for other options. Wells, reservoirs located near the land plot, or a centralized water supply system can be used as water storage devices.
Semi-automatic irrigation involves the implementation of water supply to the general highway manually. Then the system independently distributes the liquid through the pipes, regulating its flow and pressure.
Useful advice! At any time, by changing the settings, you can switch from semi-automatic to automatic mode without shutting off the water supply tap.
With mechanical watering, the moistening of the beds is controlled by a person who manually opens the tap for watering at the cottage, selecting the necessary pressure.
The choice of pipe material for irrigation in the country, product characteristics
Before organizing irrigation in the country, it is necessary to determine the material of pipelines for the selected irrigation system. Metal products are characterized by strength, reliability, durability and affordable cost. Among the negative factors are the high cost of shaped joints and shut-off valves, the susceptibility of products to corrosion, the complexity of installation, which requires special skills and abilities.
Plastic products are more modern, practical and inexpensive. The walls of the pipes are extremely smooth, so that deposits will not accumulate inside the pipelines, which eliminates a decrease in the throughput of the product. The material is characterized by strength and durability.
Hoses for irrigation: which ones are better depending on the purpose and operating conditions
Which ones are better to buy according to the material of manufacture, type and purpose of the product. Recommendations for choosing a tool. Operating and storage conditions.
HDPE pipes for irrigation in the country do not react to temperature fluctuations, the effects of an aggressive environment, can be used in the aboveground and underground method of laying. The connection of the elements of the PVC system is carried out using glue, mastic and structural fittings – this can be done independently without having special skills.
Among the most popular manufacturers of polyethylene pipes are the companies Rehau, Wavin and Ostendorf, which produce high-quality products with high technical and operational characteristics. The price of pipes for irrigation in the country is 50-90 rubles / m.
The most durable and elastic are polyethylene pipes that do not burst when water freezes. The most optimal option is considered to be the diameter of the products 20-40 mm. The connection of the system elements is carried out by soldering. Polypropylene pipes are a more economical option. They have increased strength and durability. Individual sections are connected by soldering joints or fastening with couplings. You can buy pipes from well-known manufacturers Rehau, Aquatherm, Banninger, Wefatherm, Ekoplastik, Valtek, Pilsa, Pro Aqua, Santrade for 30-60 rubles/m.
How to do watering in the country with your own hands: the main points
The creation of a watering system begins with planning. At the first stage, you should draw a plot diagram with the application of all the beds and plants that need watering. Further, all water supply options are provided, which can be carried out from a centralized water conduit or from a watering tank in the country. You can buy a tank of any capacity in a specialized store. It is installed at a height of two meters and is covered from above with a lid to prevent the accumulation of debris in the water.
If there is a well or borehole on the site, an alternative water supply system can be organized. In this case, you should decide on a pump for watering in the country, which is selected taking into account the required flow.
Important! The irrigation system in the country from plastic pipes should be located in such a way that the entire territory is covered. Otherwise, the missed place will have to be watered manually.
The pipelines and shut-off valves should be indicated in the drawing. Here it is necessary to note all connections and interlacing of pipes. Based on this, it is required to calculate the total number of plugs, tees, splitters, start connectors (in the case of drip irrigation), sprinklers (when installing a sprinkler system). Subsequently, a list of necessary materials and equipment is compiled for the arrangement of a water supply system in the country for watering with their own hands.
For the main pipeline, it is better to choose plastic pipes, since they can be used to supply fertilizer or fertilizing dissolved in water. If an intra-soil system is performed, preference is given to thick-walled products. When laying on the ground, an opaque material is used, which will help to avoid water blooming inside the pipelines.
Useful advice! Do not skimp on materials for the irrigation system. Since it is mounted for many years, it is worth choosing high-quality, certified products.
In the case of an automatic irrigation system, it is necessary to purchase an electric controller. It is powered by self-contained batteries. It is also recommended to stock up on filters that will protect the system from clogging. This is especially important for drip irrigation.
Installation of irrigation and irrigation systems for cottages
The laying of plastic pipes for irrigation in the country can be underground or above ground. The second option assumes the location of all elements of the system on the surface of the earth. Installation of such a device is carried out quite quickly. In case of leaks, they are easy to detect and eliminate. However, the surface arrangement has its drawback: the risk of damage to the pipes increases. In addition, such a gasket can contribute to easy prey for intruders.
A more preferable option is the deep installation of a garden watering system with your own hands from polypropylene pipes or polyethylene products. According to the planned plan, a trench with a depth of 30-70 cm is carried out with a slight slope towards the lowest point of the site. This is necessary in order to ensure the discharge of water from the pipeline at the end of the season. Pipes can be laid without a slope. In this case, at the end of the season, they are purged using a compressor.
At the next stage, water distribution is carried out at the dacha by laying pipes in a trench. The inset of all branches should be laid in the main pipeline. For this purpose, crosspieces or tees are used. Each outlet must be equipped with a valve to control the water supply to each section. For taps, you can use smaller diameter pipes or flexible hoses for watering in the country. Droppers or sprinklers are attached to the ends of the pipes.
The assembled system is connected to the main pipeline, then its automation is performed. After the work is completed, the system is tested. To do this, it is filled with water. If leaks are detected, they should be eliminated immediately. After the test, the trench is buried.
The irrigation system, assembled with their own hands from high-quality material, is able to last for many years, saving the owners of the site from routine and monotonous work. The main thing is to study the features of the chosen watering option, purchase the material, after which you can safely get to work.