Hydraulic press with your own hands: a universal jack tool
The hydraulic press is widely used in everyday life. It is necessary for work that requires a lot of pressure on the material being processed. A high-quality multifunctional tool has a high cost, which is completely unjustified for domestic use. You can make a hydraulic press with your own hands based on a car jack.
Purpose and scope of use of hydraulic press
A hydraulic press is a device that exerts a lot of pressure on the processed material through insignificant efforts. This principle of operation is based on Pascal’s law, according to which the applied force acting on a certain area is transmitted throughout the volume and is equal in all directions.
The hydraulic press device is represented by two cylinders. When exposed to a smaller chamber, the pressure of the liquid in it increases, which is transmitted through a special channel to the larger chamber. The piston is pressurized by the working fluid, which contributes to the effect of the element on the workpiece. Cylinders, as a rule, are arranged vertically, but there are also options that have horizontal placement. A special oil is used as the working fluid.
The installation is used for pressing, stamping, extrusion, assembly, forging, bending, straightening of metal elements. You can buy or make a cardboard press with your own hands, which will become indispensable for packaging, briquetting, pressing and recycling materials from plastics, paper and rubber. The equipment is characterized by versatility and can be used in various spheres of life to carry out repairs, maintenance and preventive maintenance. Depending on this, the press has a certain design.
Options for using the hydropress at home
To extrude metal elements from the shell or base, you can buy or make a hydraulic press with your own hands in the garage. The equipment is also suitable for pressing bearings and silent blocks that are not amenable to manual installation and disassembly. With the help of such a device, you can perform straightening, dock two elements, bend a metal billet.
Useful advice! When making a press with your own hands, it is necessary to determine the further purpose of the device, its dimensions, piston indicators, weight and the possibility of installing a pressure gauge.
When creating a hydraulic press for a garage, the dimensions of the car should be taken into account. For passenger transport, it is enough to make a simple design, and for large cars it is better to make a more complex and dimensional unit.
The device is often used as a waste paper press. With your own hands, you can make good fuel for the furnace from old paper. For such purposes, it is enough to make a simple structure with an average power rating, which will allow you to dispose of a large amount of waste paper.
The equipment is also suitable for pressing sawdust. Such briquettes are a good fuel for furnace heating, they burn for a long time without smoke formation, creating a strong heat. Instead of sawdust, coal chips are also suitable as a filler for the press. Such an assembly will consist of a desktop, a base, a power frame and a drive.
A good result is provided by a press created with your own hands for PET bottles, which turns the container into neat layers. The hydraulic tool can be used as a hay picker. At the same time, the structure is complemented by a frame frame made of timber or metal without an upper part. The element is fixed to the front by means of special fasteners. You will also need a transport picker and a running part.
Structural design of a self-made press from a jack
Before making a hydraulic press with your own hands, you should figure out which components are included in its design.
For the stability of the device, a strong and reliable lower part is necessary, which acts as the base of the installation. It has the form of a platform and is made of massive thick rolled metal. For this purpose, channels and metal corners are mainly used.
As can be seen from the press diagram, the vertical parts of the structure are represented by racks. The elements are made of steel corners and welded to the base in such a way that a right angle between the elements is provided. The height of the racks is calculated as the sum of the height of the jack, the length of its rod and the thickness of the workpiece. A fixed stop is fixed in the upper part of the racks. A corner is used for its manufacture.
To create the necessary force on the treated surface, a hydraulic jack is used. It will need to be fixed on a movable stop. The jack is operated by means of a manual lever or an electric drive.
The movable stop exerts pressure on the pressing mechanism. The element is made of steel strips or corners. A return device is used to move the stop to the normal position. It is represented by several springs. Their length and degree of stretching are calculated based on the parameters of the press.
The device of a homemade press for a garage: design characteristics
Before making a hydraulic press, you should decide on the type of installation. Depending on this, the equipment can be desktop or floor. The first type of instrument is located on the workbench, and the second is placed on a special pedestal. Such presses differ in size, load capacity. A self-made hydraulic table press provides a force of up to 12 tons, and for a floor device this value reaches 25 tons.
The desktop design is more stable, mobile. Due to its small size, it does not take up much free space. Such a press is used for processing small workpieces.
The floor hydraulic press is characterized by large dimensions and heavy weight. To install it, you will need the construction of a special platform. Such a machine will cope with the processing of large metal elements, disassembly and assembly of complex components.
Important! To expand the functionality of the floor hydraulic press, it should be equipped with an electric motor.
It is possible to make a complex structure that will be used to perform a wide range of tasks. However, the production of such an option will take a lot of time and will require the use of specialized tools and equipment. As a garage hydraulic press, it is better to make a manual model equipped with a hydraulic pump and drive. This design is two-speed, its piston is characterized by mobility.
A self-made hydraulic press for a garage can have a horizontal or vertical design. The first type of device is used for straightening, cutting and bending individual metal elements. Vertical equipment is designed for pressing and pressing parts. A self-made hydraulic press for waste paper is becoming increasingly popular.
Features of creating a hydraulic press with your own hands
A homemade construction should perform the necessary list of tasks. A device that creates a force of 15-25 tons is enough. To make it, you will need to prepare a working drawing of a hydraulic press with your own hands from a jack with the dimensions of all structural elements (such a scheme can be found on the Internet). At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the type of tool, which can be stationary or removable, the dimensions of the product, the stroke of the piston and the design of the frame.
The working cylinder of the hydraulic press is located separately or is integrated into the structure. At the same time, it can be in the upper or lower part. In the case of the first option, the pressure will be applied to the lower surface of the base. If the working element is located on the bed at the bottom, the pressure will be directed upwards as a result of the operation of the main rod.
A jack is used as a hydraulic cylinder, which acts as the main working element. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the instrument can be presented in different versions. Therefore, when choosing a jack, it is necessary to determine for what purposes the press will be used and take into account the maximum force of the device.
However, it should be remembered that an industrial bottle-type tool will not function in an inverted state. Therefore, before making a press from a jack, it is necessary to finish the product. The design should provide for the installation of a socket that will be in contact with the hydraulic cylinder rod. To make it, you need to use a piece of pipe.
The material for the frame is selected with a margin of safety, which will eliminate damage to the frame when exerting the maximum possible effort. After completing the task of processing the workpiece, the rod must return to its original position. To do this, it is necessary to choose the right springs, based on the degree of rigidity, so that they will be able to effectively fulfill their purpose. Their edges are attached to the movable upper and fixed lower parts of the base.
Designing a homemade hydraulic press for a garage with your own hands
After selecting the jack, you should start designing the frame on which the hydraulic cylinder will exert pressure. To do this, a drawing of a hydraulic press is created with your own hands. And the dimensions on it are applied for each individual element of the device. The structure must be strong, because when the device is operating, the jack will exert pressure on it both down and up, trying to break the frame.
The foundation should ensure the stability of the equipment, the best solution is to implement it in the form of a platform. The width of the table is determined based on the size of the product to be processed on the press. However, it should not be less than the total width of all elements of the press equipment.
The height of the bed is calculated as the sum of the dimensions of the jack, the values of the free movement of the rod, the height of the parts intended for processing and the thickness of the mobile working platform.
The jack is fixed to the base. The upper part of the frame acts as a stop for the products. With the help of a movable table, pressure is transferred to the part. The surface is installed on top of the jack on the frame, along which it moves freely up and down with fixation on the sides.
To ensure the adjustment of the free movement of the jack rod, replaceable inserts can be installed-linings made of solid or hollow metal profile. Another option involves making a removable stop in the form of a desktop that moves. It should be fixed to the frame using nuts with bolts or rods. To do this, it is necessary to make holes in the frame with a height less than the range of movement of the jack rod.
Another solution is to create a so-called screw press with your own hands using a drive with a steering wheel. It will be possible to reduce the clearance for the workpiece inside the frame by twisting the screw with the plate.
Useful advice! To regulate the free movement of the rod, it is better to use a combination of several of the above options.
The sequence of making a jack press with your own hands
Before making a press with your own hands, you need to prepare a welding machine, electrodes, a grinder, a drill and drills. For the finishing treatment of metal structural elements from burrs, you will need a grinding machine. At the first stage, the frame for the press is assembled. The quality and efficiency of the workflow depends on its strength and reliability. The working cylinder (in the form of a jack) and the workpiece will be located in the frame.
The material for the frame, its design and the assembly option are determined based on the perceived pressure of the jack. According to the drawing of the press with your own hands, the basis of the device is represented by a U-shaped rectangular frame made of a channel or a welded steel corner. The main effort will be concentrated in the central part of the horizontal crossbars. To achieve the maximum possible stability of the structure will be achieved by welding it to the base of a metal plate with a thickness of 08-1.2 cm.
Manual hydraulic presses: features of highly efficient devices
The device and the principle of operation of the tool. Types of devices. Areas of use of the hydraulic press. Rules of selection and operation.
To manufacture the frame of the installation, designed for a force of up to 5 tons, you will need a channel of size 8P and two hot-rolled corners of 50×50 mm in size, which are connected by a solid weld or connected by rods every 25 cm. If the tool will perceive a force of up to 10 tons, a 10P channel and paired corners with a size of 63×7 mm are required for the bed. For the manufacture of a press with the necessary compression force of 15 tons and above, a channel 14P and a paired corner with a size of 75×8 mm should be used.
Important! The frame made of the above–mentioned rolled metal will have a tenfold margin of safety, which will contribute to the normal operation of the device – without destroying the frame.
Features of assembling the press bed for the garage with your own hands
All elements for the frame are interconnected according to the drawing of the hydraulic press. First, the base is assembled, then the side parts and the upper bar of the frame. It is important to observe the geometricality of the structure, in which all elements must be the sides of a right angle.
The docking takes place by performing welded one-piece double-sided seams with cutting products end-to-end. An alternative option is to use splinted fingers or bolts to assemble parts. At the same time, the maximum permissible load on the slice should be taken into account. With such a connection, the main load will be concentrated on the bolted connections. Therefore, it is important to calculate their number correctly.
Next, the production of a movable bar for a hydraulic forging press is carried out with their own hands. For this purpose, a square pipe or channel is used. In its central part, a piece of pipe is welded, which will later serve as a socket for the rod. The guides are made of two steel strips, the length of which should be equal to the outer width of the housing. The elements are bolted to the side posts of the mobile structure.
A removable stop is made in the same way. Holes must be made in its guide parts to adjust the height of the workspace. At the final stage, the jack and springs are installed.
How to remake a press jack so that it works upside down
The most affordable option, which is used as a hydraulic cylinder for a manual press with your own hands, is a bottle-type jack. The main problem of such a tool is the inability to function in an inverted position. In this case, you can fix the tool on the upper beam permanently. In this case, the lower base will be used as a support element. Before making a press with your own hands, you will need to finalize the hydraulic mechanism.
There are several options for reworking the jack, which can be used when assembling a homemade hydraulic press. The first consists in an additional installation of an expansion tank with a volume of 300 ml. The container must be connected to the filling hole of the jack by using a conventional silicone pipe. In order for the element to be tightly fixed, it is necessary to use the fittings for the oxygen hose, which can be purchased at any auto parts store.
The second variant of the jack modification involves disassembling the tool. To do this, the oil should be completely drained from it and the plunger should be pumped. Next, the upper clamping nut is twisted by clamping it in a vice. Then it is necessary to loosen the outer glass with a rubber mallet. The element must come out of the landing ring, which is located at the base of the jack.
After the plunger lever there is a hole for liquid intake. If the glass is not fully filled in its inverted position, the hole does not come into contact with oil. This is the main problem when using a jack for a homemade press. It can be solved with the help of a tube, which should be pressed for the entire length of the glass.
The jack can be left in its original design. However, to ensure the operability of the structure, an additional third beam will need to be installed. It is attached to the side walls tightly enough, which contributes to the stationary position of the jack when creating pressure. The tool is fixed in an inverted position to the central part of the upper beam using bolts M8 or M10.
How to make a press: manufacture and installation of pressure pads
To work with large workpieces, you will need a large area of compressing beams. The jack rod in this case will not provide this, because when pressing, the force must be evenly distributed over the entire area of the treated surface, excluding the formation of deformations.
As pressure pads for a self-created hydraulic press for a garage, full-bodied piglets can be used, in which blind holes with threads are made, whereby the elements are fixed to the design of the press.
The best option is to independently manufacture pads for a press with a jack with your own hands. To do this, you can purchase four pieces of metal corner or two channels. Using the elements, a parallelepiped with open side faces is created. The butt sections that perceive the main force should be welded from the inside with a solid seam. The remaining places are welded from the outside.
One of the faces must be covered with a square insert, and the inner cavity should be filled with M500 concrete mortar. After solidification of the solution, the block is brewed on the other side. Thus, two incompressible elements are obtained.
A jack with a rod is attached to the upper block. To do this, a non-through hole is made, where the heel of the tool is inserted with a minimum gap. Holes are also made here to fix the return spring mechanism. The lower block is attached to the adjustable beam. For greater reliability and limiting the shift, a pair of corners made of metal rods is welded onto it.
Installation of a changeable support beam of a return mechanism for a self-made hydraulic press
The lower and upper beams must have the same cross-section. The elements differ only in their constructive execution. To perform the lower support element, two channels are used, which should be turned outwards with their edges. They must be attached on different sides relative to the racks and welded to their central part by using inserts from corners or thick reinforcement.
Fixing the beam on the racks is carried out by using massive steel fingers. Under them, a number of circular cross-sections should be made at different heights with parallel placement in vertical channels. The diameter of the holes must correspond to the cross-section of the bolts.
Another structural element of a self-made hydraulic garage press is a spring mechanism, thanks to which the jack returns to its original position when the bypass valve is opened. For this purpose, simple springs for door finishing, which can be purchased at a hardware store, are suitable.
Complicating the task is the upper clamping beam, which has a significant weight, as a result of which the spring may not shrink. You can get out of the situation by increasing the number of spring elements to 4-6 pcs., which is acceptable for a self-made desktop hydraulic press. You can also use more powerful elements designed for doors, which is more relevant for floor installations.
If the upper block is missing, the springs are attached to the jack rod. Fixing is performed using a washer, whose inner hole is larger than the adjusting screw of the stem, but smaller than the diameter of the piston. The spring should be fixed by means of two small extreme holes with fixation to the upper beam in the same way. The spring can be installed not strictly vertically. The excess length of the element can be compensated by its inclined location.
Useful advice! Welded hooks can also be used to attach the spring.
Features of creating a hydraulic oil press with your own hands
A homemade jack press made with your own hands can be used as an oil extraction device. However, when making it, it is necessary to provide for some design features.
A metal plate must be fixed on the upper crossbar of the frame. It should easily move along the guides when exposed to the screw shaft. Such a mechanism makes it possible to control the gap between the pressure pad and the material being processed.
Bolts are used to fix the removable mobile pad of a homemade press from a jack. They are installed in pre-created holes with a certain pitch, which is determined by the conditions of the workflow. However, the distance between the holes should not be greater than the amount of free movement of the hydraulic jack rod. The clamping elements are made of metal of different thicknesses and are removable. Using this technology, you can also make a paper press with your own hands.
Useful advice! Fixing the clamping beam to the guides can be carried out with the help of fingers made of durable metal, the diameter of which is selected based on the size of the housing and the applied force during operation of the device.
How to use a hydraulic jack: design features
Most often, a homemade press is made from a hydraulic jack. This is explained by the design features of the product and the principle of its operation, which is based on the laws of hydraulics.
The piston is located in the cylinder of the jack. Above it or in a separate tank there is a working fluid in the form of mineral oil. The hydraulic jack is powered by a small pump that pumps oil through a bypass valve above the piston. The effort is minimized due to the difference in the diameters of the plunger and the cylinder of the tool. The working fluid, which is located above the piston, pushes it out, which helps to lift the load located above it.
To lower the tool, you should know how to use a hydraulic jack. To do this, it is necessary to slowly drain the working oil from under the piston into the tank or into the upper part of the cylinder. For this purpose, a bypass valve in the form of a round head with shoulders is used, which must be loosened.
During operation of the device, certain difficulties may arise, which occurs as a result of insufficient oil level in the device. For troubleshooting, it is important to know how to refuel the hydraulic jack with your own hands. To do this, unscrew the filler plug on the tool body and insert a hose into the hole to fill the tank to the desired volume. At the end of the process, the jack is pumped.
Features of a self-created electrohydraulic press
Independently, you can make not only a manual hydraulic press, but also a device equipped with an electric drive. Such a device is capable of developing huge efforts, which expands the functionality of the equipment and increases its efficiency.
The principle of operation of a self-created hydraulic press with an electric drive is as follows. The hydraulic pump is driven by an engine that is connected to the power grid. In turn, the hydraulic pump helps to maintain the necessary pressure of the working fluid in the first chamber of the press. The piston provides pressure transfer to the second reservoir of the press, where it increases several times. Thus, the resulting force is transferred from the second cylinder to the processed material.
Important! The amount of force transmitted to the workpiece will depend on the ratio of the areas of the pistons in both cylinders.
With an electric motor, you can create both a floor and a desktop hydraulic press with your own hands. Both options will differ in size and the value of the force exerted on the workpiece. For desktop devices, it does not exceed 20 tons, and for floor devices – 100 tons.
Hydraulic press with your own hands with an electric motor
The manufacture of the device begins with the execution of the drawing of the hydraulic press with their own hands with the application of all structural elements and indication of their dimensions.
The frame of the structure must withstand significant loads, so it must be made of durable material. The best solution is to use a T-beam, which will not bend under the hydraulic press.
The frame is represented by a U-shaped bed, which is mounted on a base of thinner corners or channels. In the central part of the frame in height, it is necessary to install a working platform made of a thick-walled channel by welding.
The next stage of making a homemade hydraulic press with your own hands is the installation of a hydraulic cylinder on the bed, which is carried out in a certain sequence. To ensure reliable fastening of the hydraulic pump, it should be fixed on a metal plate by using a flange. The plate itself is mounted on the I-beams of the frame.
The flange can be made from an automobile hub by machining it on a lathe. In the metal plate to install the hydraulic cylinder, you need to weld a round boss to fix the lathe in the chuck. After boring the hole, the plate is welded to the base of the frame.
A flange with the necessary landing hole is put on the hydraulic cylinder and welded in a circle. For the reliability of the device, it is required to make and fix another flange to the top of the hydraulic cylinder, welding it to the beams.
Important! The flange and the hydraulic cylinder must be welded to each other as smoothly as possible, so the surface of the first is pre-processed on a lathe.
A metal plate with welded beams is fixed to the frame by welding. It has holes for mounting bolts. To ensure the normal operation of the press, an oil station should be installed by connecting it to the hydraulic cylinder through the use of hoses.
Repair of a hydraulic press from a jack with your own hands
To maintain the long-term working capacity of the hydraulic press, made on the basis of a jack, a homemade device needs proper operation and maintenance. During operation, it is necessary to monitor the oil level in the hydraulic cylinder, lubricate the moving parts, check the condition of the sealing joints, the reliability of fixing the assembly elements.
However, any mechanism may malfunction, which is the cause of improper operation or wear of individual structural elements. If the garage hydraulic press created by your own hands has stopped or does not start, you should check the oil level in the hydraulic cylinder. If its volume is insufficient, it will be necessary to fill the tank with subsequent pumping of the jack.
If there is a leak of liquid, this indicates mechanical damage to the structure or breakage of its individual elements. To eliminate the defect, it is necessary to disassemble the jack, check all its parts for the absence of corrosion damage. The rod is inspected for deformations. Damaged elements should be replaced with new ones. The working oil must be completely drained. The inner cavity of the jack and all its elements are washed with kerosene and dried. The old sealing gaskets and cuffs need to be replaced with new ones.
Other problems with the operation of a self-made press from a hydraulic cylinder
If there is an insufficient level of force of the manual hydraulic press, made with your own hands, or the mechanism works intermittently, such a problem is associated with the possible ingress of air into the jack cavity, which negatively affects the operation of the piston. To eliminate the damage, the working fluid should be added to the cylinder by removing the air through the tubes.
The low pressure of the mechanism is explained by damage to the valve, which has moved away from the compartments, has become dirty or the springs have weakened in it. In the first two cases, the repair or replacement of the element is carried out. Cleaning of the valve is carried out with a damp cloth followed by drying of the element. In case of severe contamination, the mechanism is washed with kerosene or gasoline and dried with compressed air. If the reason lies in the wear of the springs, they must be replaced with new elements.
Important! If the jack has a damaged housing or piston, a complete replacement of the mechanism is required, which cannot be repaired.
After disassembling the jack to perform repair work, the mechanism must be assembled in compliance with certain conditions. The valves should fit snugly to the seats. It is necessary that there is a sufficient amount of liquid in the hydraulic cylinder. There must be no air in the system.
The hydraulic press is a multifunctional universal equipment that can be used to solve various tasks where it is necessary to make efforts. The tool can be purchased at a specialized store or make a press with your own hands from a hydraulic jack, which will save finances. To do this, it is important to choose the right material and adhere to the assembly algorithm of the elements.