Grounding in a private house with your own hands: 220V and 380V
Grounding is a necessary measure in any private house or apartment. It guarantees the safety of using electrical appliances and protects against the risk of a short circuit. If you need to make grounding in a private house with your own hands: 220V and 380V are two networks, for grounding which you will have to perform various actions. For the first option, the usual zeroing without mounting the circuit is also suitable, but for the second, the grounding circuit is mandatory.
Why do I need a ground loop
Electric current can be deadly for a person – this is a well-known fact. As a result of an emergency situation, the body of an electrical appliance may be energized, because of which touching it will become a threat to life and health. Installation of 220V grounding in a private house with your own hands helps to avoid this risk.
How does it work? The surface of electrical equipment becomes dangerous when the zero phase is interrupted. The grounding circuit just plays the role of such a phase through which electricity goes into the ground.
The grounding device is mandatory not only for private homes, but also for any industrial equipment, electrical installations for household purposes, etc. The grounding circuit reduces the risk of overloads, the fire hazard of the equipment, and also increases the safety of working with it.
Elements of the ground loop
The grounding scheme in a private house includes the following elements:
- three vertical earthing devices that are driven into the ground, they can be made in the form of a corner;
- three horizontal steel strips that connect vertical earthing devices;
- a steel strip that acts as a conductor between the ground loop and the switchboard.
Useful advice! It is impossible to use fittings for the grounding circuit, since its surface quickly oxidizes, and also does not allow evenly distributing electric current.
Usually the grounding contour is made in the form of an isosceles triangle, which is located at a distance of 1-3 m from the foundation of the house. It is at this distance that a trench is dug with a depth of about a meter, into which the horizontal elements of the contour are laid. Vertical steel elements are driven to a depth of about 3 m so that about 20 cm remains on the surface.
Then a steel strip is welded along the perimeter of the contour, which connects the vertical pins. The steel core for grounding is bolted to the switchboard housing. How to make grounding circuits in a private house more efficient? To do this, the junction of the core and the grounding circuit must be thoroughly cleaned. Also, one of the options is to lay a steel strip with a cross–sectional area of at least 16 mm2 from the switchboard to the contour.
Another option to increase the efficiency of grounding is to replace the steel core with a flat steel strip. Due to the larger area of contact with the ground, its current conductivity is also higher. However, it is more difficult to lay a steel strip in the ground than a vein, it has to be laid in pieces in the ground, and then welded together. In this case, the welding method is used exclusively.
If you have read or heard how to make proper grounding in private homes, then you probably know that using bolts to connect structural elements can lead to very negative consequences. The fact is that the bolts oxidize quickly enough, which is why the circuit stops conducting electricity. For the same reasons, it is impossible to paint the contour frame, since due to the paint, the current stops passing into the ground.
Useful advice! If there is no way to do without the use of bolts when installing the grounding circuit, then they must be located above the ground surface, be securely tightened and thoroughly cleaned. From time to time, the bolts should be lubricated with a special conductive lubricant.
How to do grounding in a private house with your own hands: 220V and 380V with old wiring
Many owners of private houses and apartments know firsthand the problem with old and dilapidated wiring, to which it can be very difficult to bring grounding. The only correct option in this case is a complete replacement of the old wiring with a new one. However, not everyone can afford it, so sometimes you have to make do with what you have.
If it is not possible to replace all the wiring, then you need to at least install new sockets, switches and junction boxes. At the same time, you do not need to change the layout of their location. When installing new sockets, a very important point is the control of the grounding wires. They must be located in the junction boxes and go to the ground bus through the switchboard. Its mount is mounted on the shield body.
Another relatively simple and cheap option for how to properly make grounding in private homes is to completely disconnect the old wiring. In this case, it simply disconnects from the shield and remains in the wall, and new wiring is laid outside. Plastic casings will serve well for this purpose, and new switches and sockets can be installed in existing holes in the walls.
To update the junction boxes, it will only be enough to remove the old wires from them. The new wiring diagram is relatively easy to assemble if you have all the necessary components at hand:
- cable channels for external wiring protection;
- sockets, switches and junction boxes.
If you need to carry out new wiring in an old house and ground the electrical equipment, you will also have to install a new switchboard. At the same time, the old wiring can be left, but only low-power electrical appliances should be connected to it.
Overhaul of electrical wiring in an old house is long and expensive, a more budget option to protect yourself from fire and the possibility of a short circuit is to supplement this wiring with one grounding wire. It can not even be laid inside the wall, but simply laid in a plastic cable channel.
The advantages of this option are obvious: the cable channel fits perfectly into any interior and attaches well to any material. The channel is usually carried out between the junction boxes, as well as from the switchboard. In each junction box, all the grounding wires must be connected to each other and go out to the grounding bus.
Grounding is the connection of parts of electrical appliances with a ground loop. It is mounted so that the voltage that may occur on the device body goes into the ground. There are the following parts of grounding:
Useful advice! The grounding conductor must always be made of unpainted metal with good current conductivity, otherwise it will be ineffective.
Any grounding is characterized by a number of parameters, the most important of which is the spreading resistance. It is the value of this parameter that shows how easily the electric current will overcome the distance from the body of the appliance to the ground. The lower the spreading resistance, the better. This parameter is affected by the depth of the grounding rods, soil moisture, the metal from which the conductors are made, and much more.
By the way, the optimal place to bury the grounding contours in a private house with your own hands is the north side of the house, since there is usually maximum soil moisture. Accordingly, the spreading resistance will be the least.
The following requirements apply to grounding:
- the length of the vertical bars must be at least 16 mm;
- horizontal – from 10 mm;
- minimum steel thickness – 4 mm;
- the minimum diameter of steel pipes is 32 mm.
How to mount the grounding
Before starting the installation of the grounding circuit, it is necessary to choose a place for it. There should be no communications at the place chosen for driving rods, and in order to make sure of this, you need to coordinate the site with the relevant services: gas, water, telephone and heat and power supply. Even if you are sure that there are no communications on your site, it is better to check it through the appropriate services, otherwise the restoration of damaged lines will be very expensive.
The ideal place for the location of the ground loop is the blind area of the house. It is best to make the contour linear, you can also lay it around the perimeter, if you have the money, time and desire for it. Most often, grounding is done in the form of various geometric shapes, for example, a triangle, a polyhedron or a rectangle. The linear installation of the contour is good because, if desired and necessary, it can always be increased.
How to make grounding in a private house as simple as possible? To do this, it is enough to drill a hole with a hand drill about 2 m deep and drive the first grounding rod there. If it entered the ground easily, then the next one can be driven a little deeper, but do not exceed a depth of 3 m, otherwise the grounding conductor may simply get stuck.
After all earthing devices are hammered into the ground, they must be cut off from above about 15-20 cm below ground level. Then you need to dig a ditch of the appropriate depth between them, along which to lay connecting rods. They can be fixed by welding or bolted connections, but the latter option will have to be periodically checked, cleaned of rust and tightened contacts.
Useful advice! It is best to connect the elements of the grounding circuit with each other by welding. Then you don’t have to constantly check the contour, and the spreading resistance will remain constant even after a few years.
Grounding in a private house with your own hands 220V and 380V has different resistance. With proper installation, for the first option it is up to 30 ohms, for the second – up to 10 ohms. Also, this parameter largely depends on the resistivity of the soil in which the contour is laid, for example, high values are simply impossible for rocky soil.
Remember that with three-phase power supply, it is necessary to do grounding in a private house with your own hands 380V.
What not to do when installing grounding
The principle of grounding is based on the elementary laws of physics. One of them says that the larger the contact area of the contour with the ground, the more effective the grounding works. This leads to a number of simple rules:
If you choose between one or two grounding circuits, as well as calculate the total area, then you should focus on the number and total power of electrical appliances in the house. If it’s just about grounding a washing machine with your own hands, then one small triangle is quite enough, but if there are a lot more electrical appliances in your house, then it’s better not to risk and make grounding around the perimeter of the house.
Useful advice! Whichever metal you choose for the installation of the grounding circuit, it will still be exposed to corrosion, which in 2-3 years can reduce the effectiveness of the circuit to a minimum. Therefore, before digging the contour elements into the ground, they should be covered with special protective conductive coatings.
Grounding in a private house with your own hands 220V and 380V must be deeper than 1 m. Otherwise, the capacity of the house may become higher than the capacity of the circuit, which will lead to the emergence and growth of excess current inside the network. And this, in turn, can seriously damage the electrical equipment in the house.
A good grounding should constantly increase in cross-section. For example, if the cross–sectional area of the conductor that leaves the switchboard is 5 mm2, then the cross-section of the tape should be twice as large, and the pins driven into the ground should be twice as large as the tape.
Grounding in the country with your own hands. Diagram of the installation of electrodes. Location of grounding elements and strapping. Grounding schemes in private homes, materials for the circuit, installation.
How does grounding differ from lightning rod
Many people mistakenly confuse grounding in a private house with their own hands 220V and 380V with a lightning rod or, more correctly, a lightning rod. In fact, there is a difference. Grounding is done so that excess electricity generated in the power grid goes into the ground without overloading the electrical circuits. The lightning rod also diverts atmospheric electric charge into the ground. But the ground loop always works, but the lightning conductor only works when lightning strikes it.
If you need to install a lightning rod in a private house with your own hands, then you should not load it with the functions of a conventional grounding circuit. Why? Because the lightning rod should take the charge of atmospheric electricity into the ground in such a way that it does not pass through the house. Otherwise, the conductor or its fasteners can heat up to a very high temperature, which, in turn, can lead to a fire.
When installing the ground loop, it should be borne in mind that the current in it is much less than from lightning. In addition, the installation of the circuit provides for a two-way process: the current goes not only to the zero core, but also from it. That is, if you mount the grounding in a private house with your own hands 220V and 380V and combine it with the functions of a lightning rod, then the lightning charge may not completely go into the ground, but return to the internal network. Because of this, there may be an overload of the network, a failure of electrical appliances or a fire.
So is it possible to combine a ground loop and a lightning rod? Yes, if you use specialized factory-made circuits for this. They will allow you to combine two functions, but the cost of such a circuit will be higher than two independent devices.
What is the difference between zeroing and grounding
Many people mistakenly confuse these two terms, although there is a very big difference between them. The zoning is intended for use in industrial enterprises, but most developers neglect this rule by installing zoning contours in residential buildings. This is not entirely safe and is done either because of a lack of knowledge, or if you want to save money.
Useful advice! If a three–wire cable (zero, ground, phase) is installed in a single-phase wiring system, and a five-wire one (three phases instead of one) is installed in a three-phase wiring system, then this is definitely grounding without zeroing.
It is important to remember that zeroing is designed only for the probability of a short circuit and does not perform the function of grounding. This function is very useful when using industrial equipment, but it is completely useless in everyday conditions, even vice versa. For example, if a zero wire is connected to an electrical appliance, then in case of its burning or if you accidentally confuse zero with phase, the equipment can easily burn out.
If, after all, you decided to mount a grounding for a private house together with a grounding kit, then it is highly recommended to install additional protective equipment. For example, a voltage limiter and a protective equipment shutdown device are very popular.
Popular manufacturers and prices for earthing kits
Installation of grounding on your own is a rather laborious process, therefore, if you do not have the time, desire or skills, it is much easier to order ready–made kits from popular manufacturers:
- 10OHM is a popular domestic manufacturer that offers earthing kits for mounting to various depths. The installation depth varies from 6 to 30 m, and prices range from 6000 to 25000 rubles;
- ZandZ – universal earthing devices in the form of one or more prefabricated stainless steel electrodes. They are mounted to a depth of up to 10 m, the price depends on the number of electrodes, the depth of installation and other parameters. The average cost of a 5 m mounting kit is 23,000 rubles;
- Galmar is another popular manufacturer of prefabricated grounding electrodes. Installation is possible to a depth of up to 30 m, such a set will cost 42,000 rubles;
- Elmast – earthing kits from a domestic manufacturer. They are made of stainless steel, delivered disassembled, and can be mounted to various depths. They are characterized by a long service life. A distinctive feature of these earthing devices is their high resistance to aggressive chemical environments and adverse natural influences. The average price for a 6-meter–deep installation kit is 9,000 rubles;
- Ezetek – relatively inexpensive kits with average performance characteristics. The advantageous advantage of the kit for mounting to a depth of 6 m is the price of 6000 rubles.
There are many other manufacturers offering both completely ready-made kits for grounding a private house and individual components. Only trusted companies should be trusted in this matter. It also makes sense to listen to the recommendations of friends or at least read reviews on thematic forums. If you want to know exactly how to make grounding in private homes, you can find a huge number of video clips and photo instructions on this topic on the Internet.
General tips for arranging grounding in a private house
If you still do not want to use a ready-made factory grounding kit and have firmly decided to make grounding in the house with your own hands, then it is worth remembering a number of simple rules:
- always consider corrosion, under its influence, the resistance of grounding materials may increase;
- if the soil is very wet and the probability of corrosion is quite high, then use earthing devices with a galvanic coating or at least with a large cross-sectional area;
- do not place the grounding circuit near pipelines, i.e. where the ground is dried by heat;
- the distance between the grounding electrodes should always be greater than their length;
- the depth of the electrodes should be below the freezing point of the soil;
- the resistance of the entire grounding system should not exceed 4 ohms;
- it is highly recommended to connect the electrodes with each other by welding;
- the cross-sectional area of each electrode, as well as its cross-section, must comply with the established standards of the PUE.
If all these requirements are met, you can be sure that the grounding system installed for you will reliably protect your electrical appliances from breakage, and your house from fire as a result of a short circuit.
Useful advice! It is best to mount the ground loop according to the ready-made instructions from the Internet. This will help you do everything in a short time and avoid the most common mistakes.
Checking the ground loop for operability
After the installation of the grounding is completed, it is necessary to perform a control check of the circuit’s operability. This is done with the help of a special and rather expensive device, but there is an easier way.
A lamp with a power of at least 100 watts is connected to one of the ends of the circuit, and only one of its contacts is connected to the circuit, the second goes to the phase. If the light bulb is shining brightly, then you have done everything correctly, and the contour works well. If the light is dim, then this indicates a weak contact between the contour elements. If the light bulb does not shine at all, the contour is assembled incorrectly.
Photos of 220V grounding in a private house with your own hands can be found in large quantities on the Internet, as well as video instructions. Therefore, if you are confident in your abilities, have the necessary tools and skills, then you can safely assemble the grounding circuit yourself. It will cost much cheaper than buying a ready-made factory-made device.