Geotextile for drainage (geotextile): varieties and features of the material
Geotextile has long ceased to be something unusual. Now it is widely used both in construction and in the arrangement of various systems, including sewage. Let’s consider the main types and characteristics of this material, how to choose and use geotextile for drainage (geotextile) correctly. What you should pay attention to before buying geotextile for drainage, and what does not play a significant role.
What types of geotextiles are
Geotextiles can be of different types and, depending on the requirements of operation, are used in different conditions. Therefore, the main criterion for the classification of geotextile is the material of its manufacture:
- polypropylene or polyester make it possible to produce the highest quality geotextile;
- a product with sufficient strength and quality suitable for use in most construction works is obtained from monofilament and staple raw materials;
- geotextile made by thermal bonding cannot boast of special strength, since it is the thinnest of all the proposed options. However, it has one of the best indicators when it comes to water resistance;
- the use of mixed threads for the manufacture of geotextiles is not recommended, although such options are also available for sale. The thing is that cotton or woolen threads that fall into the composition are very easy to rot. And this is a completely undesirable process if we are talking about the construction or arrangement of drainage.
It is necessary to decide before choosing and buying geotextile, where and in what works it will be used. Depending on this, the type of material from which it is made is selected. Which geotextile is better for drainage can be understood by familiarizing yourself with its main technical characteristics.
Geotextile for drainage (geotextile): technical characteristics and scope of application
Geotextile for drainage or other systems is a material that is characterized by high performance:
It is these qualities that allow it to be used to strengthen the soil, divide the territory, filter wastewater, protect the slopes of the site, arrange drainage, etc.
Geotextile has gained particular popularity in Europe, where the construction of highways cannot do without its use. The synthetic origin of the material allows it to maintain its characteristics for a long time, and high strength allows it to withstand serious loads. Some manufacturers produce geotextiles, the density of which is up to 250 kg at break.
When it comes to private or industrial construction, geotextile also has its place here. It is widely used for the arrangement of urban sewer systems, in the construction of houses, railways, highways, gardening and drainage. What density of geotextile is necessary for use in a particular field? For example, geotextile with a density of 200 g/m3 and above is used for the arrangement of drainage systems, about 100 g/m3 is enough for landscaping, and 800 g/m3 is enough for the construction of runways for aircraft.
The principle of operation of this material is very simple: it is an interlayer that is used to separate the other two layers from each other, while providing additional density. For example, it helps to significantly reduce the risks of sinkholes on the road, and also prevents the erosion of the site by groundwater.
How to choose the density of geotextile for drainage
In drainage systems, geotextile plays a very important role – it prevents the subsidence of the soil layer in the drainage system, and also prevents the process of diffusion of crushed stone into the water. Geotextile acts as a filter that keeps the drainage pipe and materials from flooding.
When thinking about which geotextile to choose for drainage, it is best to give preference to a material made of monofilament. It is easy to identify such a material among others – its snow-white color gives it away. At the same time, it is better if the fabric is made by the method of thermal fastening.
If crushed stone is used as drainage, small stones can penetrate the material, creating damage in it. It is worth paying attention to this when choosing the geotextile of the required density. The indicator for creating a drainage core will be at least 200 g/m3.
If you plan to wrap the drainage system, then geotextile with a minimum density and thickness is suitable for this. At the same time, its water-repellent and other technical characteristics should be at the highest level.
Which geotextile to use for drainage
There is a huge selection of geotextile materials on sale, and if you do not have the proper experience in this field, you will almost certainly get confused. In order to make the right choice, it is necessary to carefully study all the requirements for drainage geotextile. The price of the product also depends on these indicators.
The use of a cloth made on the basis of mixed materials is not allowed, since cotton fibers tend to be washed out over time, which significantly reduces the ability of geotextile to filter liquid. Thus, in the near future the system will require repair, which will entail additional costs. Monofilament is the only suitable option for this case.
It is worth paying attention to the filtration coefficient that the manufacturer specifies for this type of material. The optimal indicator is considered to be 125-140 m / day. A higher indicator is required only if the fabric is located in the ground with a high water flow.
There are some requirements for the density of geotextiles for drainage, related to the permissible load. So, for a longitudinal load, the indicator should be 1.9-3 kN / m, and for a transverse load – 1.5-2.4 kN / m. At the same time, the total tensile strength should be at least 400-500 N.
Other parameters, such as the width of the roll, can be any, and are selected depending on the cross-section of the filter layer. The cost of the roll largely depends on the manufacturer, as well as on the density of the material. Do not skimp on this, because poor-quality geotextile may later be damaged and require replacement.
Drainage geotextile for the arrangement of the foundation of the house
Its durability largely depends on how well the foundation of the house will be laid. That is why it is worth paying special attention to the arrangement of the drainage system in order to avoid the house being washed away by groundwater. Before starting work, it is necessary to understand exactly at what depth the waters lie, as well as what type of soil you are dealing with. This will help you navigate when choosing materials: pipes, geotextiles and crushed stone.
First of all, you will need to dig a trench around the perimeter of the foundation. It should be excavated with a slight slope towards the direction of water movement. In this case, the width of the recess is calculated based on the diameter of the pipes, as well as the required circumference. For example, if you put a pipe with a diameter of 11 cm, then the margin of space that is allocated for crushed stone will be about 10 cm.
Pay attention! If there is a blind area, the trench must be positioned along it.
Then sand must be filled to the bottom of the trench. The thickness of the layer should not exceed 5 cm. Geotextile is laid on top, which is immediately covered with rubble. Pipes are laid out on top and crushed stone is filled in again.
The upper and side layers of crushed stone should be at least 10 cm. All these components are covered with geotextile, which is fastened with a wire with an interval of about 30 cm. Then everything is covered with soil and the drainage system for the foundation can be considered ready.
Drainage system for a garden plot
Too close location of groundwater can have an extremely negative impact on the life of plants that grow in the garden. However, a way to combat this phenomenon has been invented for a long time, and today it is quite easy to implement it even with your own efforts.
In order to divert water from the site, it is necessary to dig narrow trenches in the form of a “Christmas tree” over its entire area. They will accommodate narrow pipes with a diameter of 6.3 cm. They are cut into segments of the required length and with the help of special tees are connected at the points of turns.
It is at this phase that it is necessary to pay attention to the role of geotextile. It is necessary to make a drainage pipe in the geotextile filter. Each piece of pipe must be wrapped with geotextile at least three times, and the winding must be fixed with a wire.
After that, the layers are laid out in the following order: crushed stone, geotextile, crushed stone, earth.
Useful advice! At this stage, the geotextile must be overlapped to provide more reliable protection.
Dornit: non-woven geotextile of wide application
One of the variants of geotextile that is widely represented on the market today is dornit. This is the name of a canvas made of polymer raw materials and used in the construction industry for filtration, reinforcement and as drainage. At first glance, dornite is not much different from ordinary geotextile, however, it is not.
The technical characteristics of the dornit geotextile are in many ways superior to other similar materials, primarily because of the method that is used in the process of its production. Needle-punched heat-treated geotextile is capable of withstanding loads that significantly exceed those permissible for conventional materials.
Non-woven needle-punched geotextile is made using a special technology that allows to improve the quality characteristics of the material. This made it possible to use it in many areas. For example:
- in the construction of railways and highways;
- for laying pipelines;
- as a base for laying paving slabs;
- for the equipment of flat parking areas.
Having found its place in many areas, dornit helps to successfully solve the following tasks: increasing the strength of structures, separation of soil layers and drainage, filtration and prevention of soil leaching processes, protection of drainage systems from contamination.
Prices for woven geotextile per m2
Despite its excellent technical characteristics, geotextile has quite an affordable price. For example, the price of geotextile for drainage for 1 m2 is in the range of 10-20 rubles. The material of domestic production is characterized by a lower price per m2. Geotextile for drainage from an imported manufacturer will cost a little more.
Pay attention! Regardless of the price, you need to buy a geotextile for drainage that will meet all the requirements for geotextile for this type of work.
The price of geotextile directly depends on the following indicators: density, strength, method and material of manufacture and manufacturer. Before you buy a geotextile, be sure to familiarize yourself with its technical characteristics.
If you plan to entrust the installation of the drainage system to professionals, then you should familiarize yourself with the prices for laying geotextiles. On average, the price of geotextile laying starts from 30 rubles per 1 sq.m. It is not difficult to calculate that it will cost almost 2 times cheaper to buy geotextile for drainage on your own and lay it with your own hands.
Geotextile laying technology for drainage
In order to figure out how to use geotextile in the process of arranging a drainage system, let’s consider what it is necessary for and what types of it there are. Starting from the existing relief, one of two drainage options is used:
The first option is dug channels that are located on the surface of the earth. They are easy to mount, but they have a rather unsightly appearance. If we are talking about the arrangement of your own plot, then this option can be called unsuitable.
The deep system is not visible from the outside, as it is laid underground with the help of special pipes and deeply dug trenches. It is to ensure the safety of pipes, as well as for the arrangement of the interior of the tanks, geotextiles are used.
As mentioned earlier, geotextile is widely used for the arrangement of drainage systems on private plots and adjacent territory. Depending on the purpose and, accordingly, the density, the price of geotextile for drainage will also vary.
Laying geotextiles in drainage tanks
Another important condition that must be observed in order for the geotextile to fully fulfill its role is to properly lay it in the drainage system. To do this, there are rules, observing which you can achieve the desired result:
- the bottom of the trench must be completely cleared of construction debris. The walls should be as smooth as possible;
- it is recommended to unpack the purchased geotextile immediately before laying, since the material is sensitive to sunlight;
- if necessary, the canvas can be cut to the desired size before laying;
- the geotextile must necessarily overlap;
- it is absolutely impossible to use those pieces of fabric that have damage;
- laying should be done in such a way that the canvas is not stretched too tight. At the same time, the formation of waves and folds is also unacceptable;
- if we are talking about laying geotextiles for drainage on large surfaces, then at this time it is necessary to fix the already laid segments in order to avoid their displacement;
- in order to preserve the integrity, as well as minimize the negative effects of ultraviolet radiation, the draining material should be filled into the trench immediately after laying;
- when the entire layer of draining material is filled in and compacted, the side edges of the geotextile should be wrapped inwards. At the same time, the free edges should have a length of at least 20 cm, this will help to avoid the possibility of contamination of the filler;
- when all the edges are wrapped as they should be, you can fill the trench with earth.
Which side should the geotextile be laid on
Another important question that arises in the process of work is which side to put the geotextile on? Even experts’ opinions were divided here. Some of them claim that there is no significant difference, and the fact that one side is rough and the other is smooth is just production costs. Reviews claim that regardless of which side to lay the material, the characteristics of geotextile remain unchanged.
Some manufacturers focus the attention of consumers on the fact that it is necessary to put the geotextile with the smooth side down. In this case, recommendations on which side to put the geotextile into the drainage will necessarily be contained on the product packaging.
Another opinion on the question of which side to lay geotextile suggests using a rough surface for better adhesion to the ground.
In any case, when deciding which side to put the geotextile on the ground, it is best to listen to the instructions of the manufacturer of the drainage geotextile that you have decided to buy.