Electric concrete mixer: recommendations for selection and operation
At any construction site, one of the main mechanisms is an electric concrete mixer. This is an integral part of the successful and operational work of both professionals and amateurs who are just starting to engage in construction on their own. It is the volume of work performed that must be taken into account when purchasing a concrete mixer. Information on how to choose the right tool is contained in this article.
Concrete mixer: a machine that facilitates the construction process
A concrete mixer, or concrete mixer, is a special machine for construction work, which is designed for mixing concrete and other solutions used for pouring the foundation, making screeds or brickwork. The device will also be a good help in the process of gluing tiles and when performing other types of construction work.
Externally, a concrete mixer is an open container, in the middle of which the components of concrete are poured, that is, cement, sand and water. A component such as gravel may also be present. The machine prepares the solution by stirring. Then it is poured into a separate container using a special mechanism.
The device greatly facilitates, optimizes and speeds up the workflow on the construction site. Of course, you can order a solution or cook it in a trough, stirring with a shovel, but it’s much easier to fill up the components and just press the button. At the same time, not everyone knows which concrete mixer to choose. As a result, during the construction of a small house, you can find bulky equipment running idle, or small concrete mixers on huge objects.
There is a large assortment of such products on the modern market. At the same time, the models differ in the duration of operation, ergonomics of the devices and ease of use. Having decided on the required volume, power and other parameters, you can easily choose the best option.
First of all, you should familiarize yourself with the species diversity of concrete mixers. Devices are classified according to the following criteria:
- according to the principle of operation;
- type of drive;
- tank capacity;
- the type of food.
Useful advice! The gravity concrete mixer is equipped with special mechanisms for emptying, which makes it easy and fast to extract the solution. In addition, the price of such mixers is significantly lower than the cost of forced-type machines, which mix the solution with fine fraction components more efficiently.
Classification of concrete mixers: photos of different types of machines
Before choosing a concrete mixer, it is necessary to get at least a general idea of the variety of devices. In the last century, a huge number of products were invented for a variety of purposes. At the same time, the most popular are mobile mechanisms with a small capacity – up to 300 liters.
The main feature that underlies the classification of devices is the principle of operation. There are two types of concrete mixers in this group:
- forced type;
- gravity type.
The forced-action devices are equipped with a stationary drum and a mechanism operating on the principle of a mixer. Thus, the ingredients are mixed in the drum. It should be noted that, despite the high-quality preparation of the solution, there are a number of disadvantages, among which the following can be distinguished:
- the difficulty of removing the resulting mixture, although some manufacturers have found a way out of this situation by equipping the concrete mixer with a mechanism for unloading the solution;
- the small size of the fractions to be mixed, therefore, gravel cannot be added to such devices, and especially large pieces of crushed stone can even disable the machine.
Considering the listed disadvantages, it would be more correct to call this type of concrete mixers mortar mixers.
Gravity concrete mixer is perhaps the most popular among its “brethren”. Consider the device of a concrete mixer. It is a drum that rotates around its own axis, resulting in a high-quality finished mixture. In order to avoid the effect of the solution on the centrifugal forces, the drum is equipped with special blades. According to reviews, a concrete mixer with a gravity mechanism mixes much worse, but building components of various sizes can be added to such a device.
Choosing the best concrete mixer by drive type: electric, gasoline and diesel devices
Depending on the type of drive , concrete mixers are divided into:
- on electric;
- diesel engines.
The most popular among this group are electric concrete mixers. In addition, they are less expensive. Such devices are equipped with an electric motor, they can be connected to a 220 or 360 V power supply. This factor must be taken into account if only a 220 V network is available. The engine on such machines usually has a power of up to 1 kW, which is especially advantageous in terms of electricity consumption.
Gasoline-powered concrete mixers are equipped with an internal combustion engine. As a rule, this is a two-stroke engine, before refueling which engine oil should be added to the fuel. Such a device will be required if you have to work on construction without access to the power grid. First, the gasoline engine is started, then mixing is performed. Indoors, it is problematic to work with such a machine, since toxic exhaust gases will be released.
Useful advice! In terms of savings, electric concrete mixers are the most profitable, since gasoline and diesel fuel are much more expensive than electricity. In addition, the electric concrete mixer does not emit smoke, so installation indoors is allowed.
A concrete mixer with a diesel engine is more economical in terms of fuel consumption compared to a gasoline mechanism. At the same time, it should be noted that it is problematic to start a diesel engine in the cold, which excludes the operation of such a device in winter. In addition, the equipment with a diesel engine weighs significantly more than a concrete mixer with a small electric motor.
Electric concrete mixer: gravity type mechanism design
Having decided on the type of device (electric gravity type concrete mixer), you can proceed to the selection of a specific model of concrete mixer. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to some parameters.
Construction of a concrete mixer. It should take into account the usability and the ability of the device to perform certain tasks. The tank volume plays a crucial role. The choice depends on the amount of solution. A concrete mixer with a capacity of up to 100 liters is suitable for a small construction site, for example, when it is necessary to fill the foundation with a concrete mixer with your own hands or if you need to build a gazebo. For the construction of a house, you should choose mechanisms with a capacity of 100 to 150 liters, which are designed to prepare 60 or even 100 liters of solution at a time. Products having a tank with a volume of over 150 liters are professional machines.
The type of electric drive, on which both the design itself and the type of electric motor installed on the concrete mixer depend. There are gear and crown drives.
The reducer for the concrete mixer is located in the lower part of the product together with the motor, which from below ensures the rotation of the drum itself. Such devices are reliable, but they must be handled very carefully, since their cost significantly exceeds the price of crown equipment.
The principle of operation of the crown concrete mixer is that by means of a belt drive, the engine drives the crown, which rotates the drum itself. In such mechanisms, the belt drive often breaks off, the crown fails, and other malfunctions may also occur. It should be noted that spare parts for such concrete mixers are inexpensive and can be replaced independently.
Engine for concrete mixer: power and operating mode
Gravity-type concrete mixers are usually equipped with an asynchronous electric motor with a short-circuited rotor, which provides the necessary torque. Many criteria depend on the type of transmission.
It’s important to know! In a concrete mixer with a volume of 130 liters, it is impossible to prepare 130 liters of solution at a time: the maximum amount is 100 liters. This is due to the fact that the filling capacity of the tank with the solution should not exceed 85%.
In a crowned concrete mixer with a belt drive, starting the engine is simplified due to belt slippage. For a concrete mixer equipped with a gear-belt transmission, the start-up process is much more complicated. The heaviest start is characteristic of geared concrete mixers.
When choosing the engine power, it is necessary to take into account these features. For mechanisms with belt drive and a volume of up to 100 liters, a 500 watt engine is suitable. A 700-watt motor is installed in concrete mixers with a capacity of up to 150 liters. Larger devices must be equipped with an electric motor with a capacity of 1000 watts or more.
The power supply network also plays a big role in choosing a concrete mixer. Devices that are connected to a three-phase network endure overloads much better, they are characterized by an excellent starting torque. Therefore, almost all concrete mixers with a volume of over 250 liters are equipped with a three-phase motor.
Motor power is an important, but not the main condition for the successful operation of the tool. For example, if an electric concrete mixer is equipped with a non-native engine or is made with your own hands, then you need to pay attention to its operating mode.
The main part of the engines is designed for long-term operation (S1). At the same time, such a load is unacceptable for a concrete mixer operating in a “torn” mode. You should pay attention to a product that is capable of transferring multiple launches (S4). Devices of this type are specially developed for repetitive, but not long–term starts with phases: work – cooling.
Wiring diagrams of concrete mixer motors: recommendations
After the unit is selected, questions arise about how to use the concrete mixer, how to connect it correctly, taking into account the number of drives. In this case, it is necessary first of all to understand the electrical circuit of the engine. Most concrete mixers are equipped with two types of motors – single-phase or three-phase. Of course, their connection schemes differ from each other. Moreover, they also have different connection options that take into account local conditions and requirements for a particular engine.
The connection of a single-phase motor of concrete mixers is special in that it has only one working winding, which is laid in the stator in a certain order. After applying voltage to this winding, nothing will happen – the engine will emit a “mooing”, heat up, but it will not rotate. This is due to the fact that the motor requires an initial moment of inertia. Thus, if you push the rotor of the engine well, it will start to rotate and gradually gain the necessary momentum.
Useful advice! Before connecting an electric motor with 4 wires, it is necessary to deal with the motor windings. There are two windings, which means there should be 4 ends. In addition, the wiring diagram of the concrete mixer assumes the presence of a capacitor of a specific capacity. It is needed so that the angle between the phases that are connected to the working and starting windings is different – preferably 90 degrees.
It is quite problematic to produce such an algorithm of actions every time, especially if the engine is with a drive mechanism. In addition, it is not always possible to give it the necessary inertia. Therefore, it is worth considering the connection scheme of a single-phase motor with a small starting winding. When the voltage is applied to it, the motor starts spinning. After it has gained nominal speed, the winding must be disconnected.
Concrete mixer spare parts: categories and features of choice
Spare parts for concrete mixers are parts of the mechanism that play the role of consumable elements in it, which wear out during the use of the tool and require frequent replacement. The main spare parts are considered to be brook belts for a concrete mixer with a drive, as well as drive gears and starting buttons for the device.
During operation, parts such as drive gears, cast iron gears, wedge-shaped, toothed and stream belts wear out much faster. The listed details must be kept in stock so that the work does not stop at the most inopportune moment. The motor and gearbox for the concrete mixer deserve special attention. A little less often fail, but the toothed crowns, as well as the upper and lower supports of the equipment, called flanges, are subject to replacement.
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Usually, the manufacturer establishes a one–month warranty for spare parts for concrete mixers from the date of purchase – provided that the rules of their installation and operation are observed. It should be noted that electrical connectors do not belong to the list of spare parts for concrete mixers.
How to properly repair a concrete mixer with your own hands
Despite the degree of quality of the product, sooner or later a question arises concerning the repair of the concrete mixer. At the same time, the breakdown may have different prerequisites and character due to the fact that significant loads are placed on this mechanism. The main reasons for the failure of the concrete mixer are its improper operation and storage.
To repair a concrete mixer with your own hands, you need to have minimal knowledge about this type of equipment and an idea of its device. If in doubt, it is better to turn to professionals. When you have confidence in your own abilities, you can get to work by preparing the necessary tools beforehand. The list of devices includes:
- three – lobed puller;
- bearing puller;
- a hammer;
- a set of keys.
Then it is necessary to understand the reason for the breakdown of the concrete mixer. There may be several of them:
- loading the device beyond the norm;
- cleaning the drum does not happen at the right time;
- the rules and conditions of tool storage are not observed.
Useful advice! It is possible to avoid or delay the repair of the concrete mixer by fulfilling certain requirements. To do this, it is always necessary to clean the bowl and the mechanism after work, observe the proportions of concrete for the concrete mixer and not overload the device with an excessive amount of mortar, as well as store the tool in proper conditions.
Replacement of consumables, such as belts, drive gears and starting buttons, are the most frequent types of repair of a concrete mixer with their own hands. Bearings and gear rings are replaced much less often, since their service life is much longer.
How to properly knead concrete in a concrete mixer
There are various ways to prepare the mortar in a concrete mixer. They depend on the design of the device and the principle of operation.
In gravity machines, the process of connecting all the components of the mixture is carried out by turning the container with the solution from top to bottom or along the axis. Mixing occurs under the influence of gravity. A similar result can be obtained even in the case of using a manual concrete mixer. However, it will not be possible to achieve large volumes of mortar in this way, therefore this option is recommended exclusively for private construction.
The forced mechanical method is similar to the gravitational method: it also allows you to achieve a high degree of uniformity of the solution. The mixing mechanism includes a bucket of horizontal or inclined type, where the mixer is immersed. Such a container can spin itself and without a mixer, instead mixing is done by the blades that are inside the bucket.
The forced-vibration method assumes the presence of a fixed container. For mixing, a mixer is used, which emits compression waves, which contributes to effective mixing and compaction of the mixture. It should be noted that this method is energy-consuming, since a 1.3 kW vibrating drive is required to prepare 20 liters of solution.
The combined gravitational-mechanical method is a combination of all these methods. Knowing how to load the concrete mixer correctly, you can make this tool yourself.
How to make a concrete mixer with your own hands: brief instructions for manufacturing
Considering how much a concrete mixer costs, many consider it advisable to make the tool yourself. To do this, it is enough to purchase the necessary materials and acquire certain skills. Homemade concrete mixers have a different design depending on the principles of action listed above. They can be manual, vibrating, and also containing an electric drive.
You can make a simple manual concrete mixer with your own hands. The drawings are available on the Internet. The manufacturing process consists of the following steps:
Useful advice! A vertical manual concrete mixer prepares the mixture much faster, but a device with horizontal loading gives a better quality solution.
If the horizontal arrangement of the can is assumed, then a hatch for loading should be made on the side, and the container should be fixed to the axis. For support, you can take steel pipes. Such a structure rotates slowly, so the mixing period of the solution can take about 20 minutes. At the same time, in terms of performance, such a concrete mixer is several times superior to a machine, the principle of operation of which is based on the “scoop” method. An electric motor with a capacity of 2.5 kW can be connected to such a design, taking into account the fact that the tank volume is 50 liters.
How to make a concrete mixer from a 200 liter barrel with your own hands
You can also make a concrete mixer with your own hands from a 200-liter barrel with both manual and electric drive. If we are talking about a manual device, then the container is simply mounted on a shaft rotating by means of handles fixed at the ends. For greater mixing efficiency, partitions with a height of 10 to 15 cm should be welded lengthwise and crosswise in the middle of the barrel.
The mobility of the device allows you to install racks on a wheelbarrow or a frame with wheels. The barrel should be tightly closed, since its horizontal location is assumed. Flanges with bearings are attached on both sides, to which the shaft is welded.
In order to conveniently load the components and pour out the solution, in the process of making a concrete mixer with your own hands, you need to make a hole from the barrel where the hinges are welded and the manhole cover with a hermetic layer is put on. To ensure the static nature of the product, fix the shaft with racks. In order to avoid distortions, the supports are buried in the ground, and handles are attached to the container.
A concrete mixer with your own hands from a 200-liter barrel can be made using a different method, but the same drawing. The main differences between the two options are the use of an engine that is fixed through a pulley on one side of the barrel, as well as the vertical position of the device. A homemade vertical concrete mixer is mounted on a swivel frame with an installed motor, and rollers are attached to the barrel to twist it on the shaft. To facilitate rotation, handles or a steering wheel are attached to the container.
Electric concrete mixer: prices and popular models
When it comes to price-quality ratio, you should trust proven manufacturers. Lebedyan concrete mixers occupy a special position in this list, differing from competitors in a number of characteristics that meet the requirements of users. Lebedinsky Plant specializes in the production of SBR concrete mixers and similar machines, which makes it possible to obtain more reliable and high-quality products.
The product line of the Lebedyan company includes both manual equipment and electric concrete mixers, which are characterized by a long service life. A special category consists of professional machines with a large capacity.
Useful advice! If we are talking about private housing construction or low-rise construction, then you can choose Profmash concrete mixers. This company specializes in the production of small devices.
A concrete mixer is a convenient equipment that is used to prepare various types of solutions ranging from tile glue to concrete for garden paths. The modern market offers a wide range of these mechanisms, which are characterized by durability and ease of operation. You can also make a concrete mixer yourself. To do this, it is necessary to study the device device, purchase the necessary materials and tools.