DSP: What is it? Scope of use and classification of the material
The construction industry offers a wide range of materials designed for various types of finishing and repair work. Modern production is progressing every year in the variety of creation of new construction products. Chipboard is one of the most popular materials. DSP: this is what this abbreviation stands for and what should be taken into account when choosing the material, the presented article will help to find out.
DSP: What is it?
What is chipboard? This is a particle board obtained by flat hot pressing of dried shavings, sawdust and wood chips with the addition of synthetic resins, which are used as a binder. The raw materials used to create the material are chips, sawmill waste, woodworking and plywood production.
Compared with natural wood, chipboard is devoid of many disadvantages: voids, knots. This material has a homogeneous composition and equal rigidity over the entire area. And the presence of synthetic resins in the product, such as phenolic and formaldehyde, contributes to the reliable retention of fasteners in its thickness.
The history of the creation of the material
The first prototype of chipboard is a construction material created in 1887 by Ernest Hubbard from a mixture of sawdust and casein glue. Later in 1918, this material was veneered. At this time, the scientist Freudenberg from Germany patented an ideal formula of the material, where he accurately calculated the ratio of sawdust and binder, which should be no more than 3-10%. In 1935, these data were corrected, and the first plate using a phenolic binder was released.
Then there was a moisture-resistant chipboard, which included paraffin. In the USSR, the first plate was released in 1957, which was the beginning of the creation of a powerful domestic production of chipboard at plywood factories.
Scope of application
Due to the high strength, moisture resistance and ease of machining, the material is very popular in the manufacture of furniture, door blocks, for the installation of interior partitions.
Based on the sound insulation and thermal insulation properties of the material, chipboard is often used for the floor. This material allows you to achieve a perfectly smooth structure when insulating wooden or concrete floors, while the work costs will be minimal.
The main stages of production
The technological process of manufacturing chipboard from different manufacturers may differ. This significantly affects the weight of the chipboard sheet, which depends on the type of wood, the density of pressing and the size of the finished product.
However, any production process of creating a chipboard consists of several main stages, which will be discussed below.
Preparation of raw materials. The source material is obtained from the waste of the woodworking industry, which is crushed to a certain size.
Drying and mechanical selection. The raw materials enter the drying chamber, where vortex drying is carried out by hot air flows, which helps to reduce the moisture content of the material by 6-7%. Further, the dried raw materials are sent to a cyclic installation, where the selection of the correct sized particles takes place. They move on to the next stage, and the larger ones return to the stage of re-grinding.
Connecting components. Wood drying enters the mixer, where it is combined with formaldehyde resins.
Creating a form. The wood pulp is poured onto the conveyor belt in several layers created under the action of a cold press. Next, the hot press connects all the layers into a single blank. Then the stove is cooled and dried. Here the sheet is cut to the standard sizes.
Application of decorative coating. This stage is used to create laminated chipboard. The surface is pre-leveled and thoroughly sanded. Next, the sheet is placed with the back side on the sulfate paper and covered with sulfate and finishing paper. Laminated chipboard is created under the action of the press.
Composition of the material
The uniformity and quality of the final product directly depends on the production equipment on which the canvas was made, and on the degree of preparation of the raw materials. For the production of chipboard, low-value deciduous and coniferous wood is used, any construction wood debris that must comply with certain geometric requirements.
Raw materials should not resemble fine dust and contain sawdust with a square cross-section, which impair the property of the material to resist bending.
Chipboard can have several layers in its composition. Depending on this, they are divided into single-layer, three-layer and multi-layer. Multilayer plates are the highest quality. Here, larger chips are used on the inner layers of the material, and small ones are used on the outer layers. There are chipboards with a unique design – a tambourine. The tambourine is designed in the form of a “sandwich”, where the upper and lower layers are represented by chipboard of various thicknesses, and in the middle there is a cellular cardboard.
Surface treatment method
According to the method of processing the surface of the chipboard material can be laminated and laminated.
Laminated chipboard sheet is obtained by applying a decorative protective layer to the surface of the material under the influence of high temperature (140-210 ° C) and pressure (25-28 MPa).
To date, the use of laminated chipboard is very popular. Using this material, you can create real masterpieces. Well-known manufacturers, such as Kronospan holding, are clearly focused on the consumer’s request and produce chipboard in a variety of colors. There are several groups into which the general color spectrum of chipboard is composed:
- plain smooth (yellow, white, blue);
- plain textured (textured white, aluminum);
- woody tones (beech, cherry, alder);
- imitation of rare wood species (“merano”, “cordoba”, “Winchester oak”);
- glossy tones;
- veneered tones;
- fancy decors with patterns and drawings.
Useful advice! Veneered, glossy and fancy tones should be used for the manufacture of the facade of furniture.
What is KDSP? This is a kind of chipboard, which is obtained by gluing paper-resin films to the surface of the chipboard using an adhesive composition. This is achieved at lower rates, compared with laminated chipboard, temperature (20-150 ° C) and pressure (5-7 MPa).
Compared with laminated chipboard, chipboard has a lower cost. However, despite the initial presentable appearance, it has a short service life.
Modern industry offers chipboard with paper-laminated plastics lining. These polymer materials contain parallel layers of filler (veneer, fabric, paper). Such chipboard will have good indicators of plasticity, mechanical strength, impact resistance.
Chipboard countertops for the kitchen are made using this technology. Popularity is due to high physical parameters, a wide range of textures that mimic artificial and natural materials, as well as an affordable price.
Classification of building material
According to the surface quality of the chipboard material, it is divided into three grades.
1 grade. These materials have a perfectly smooth, smoothly polished surface. The presence of even the most insignificant scratches, chips, undulations, protrusions, depressions, crumbled corners and edges is not allowed here. This cloth is processed on a special linear grinding machine.
This type of material is used in the manufacture of furniture, as a panel for the subsequent application of veneer, lamination.
Grade 2. This is the culling of first-class finished material. Small scratches, chipped edges may be present on the surface. But the total percentage of defects, depending on the dimensions of the sheet, should not exceed 10%. Materials of the 2nd grade may differ in the appearance of the exterior. They can be with an ordinary surface, a fine-structured and large-structured outer layer. The material is used for construction work and in the manufacture of furniture.
Grade 3: non-grade canvas. This is an absolute marriage, where scratches, chips, cracks and other mechanical damage are clearly visible. Materials of this grade can be used for shuttering, creating interior partitions. I.e. in those places that are hidden from human sight.
Pay attention! For the manufacture of furniture for kitchens and bathrooms, there are chipboards of increased moisture resistance, which include paraffin. Such plates have a greenish tinge on the cut.
The cost of a chipboard sheet of first-class material with a size of 2440×1830 mm and a thickness of 18 mm will be about 800 rubles, respectively, the cost of a square will cost 150 rubles.
Grade 2 material can be purchased much cheaper. The price for a chipboard sheet 18 mm thick and 3500×1750 mm in size will be within 120 rubles per square meter.
For the production of chipboard manufacturers adhere to the standard, which regulates two main brands of chipboard, differing in physical and mechanical characteristics.
Brand P-A: a product of increased quality with improved flexural and tensile strength. Unlike P-B, the material of the P-A brand has a low percentage of swelling, has a lower percentage of the roughness of the warping plane. The P-A brand is exposed to cladding.
A high-quality material must have certain physical and mechanical properties:
- water absorption is 12-88%;
- humidity is in the range of 6-10%;
- the percentage of swelling in the thickness of the material in 24 hours should not exceed 5-30%;
- the specific heat capacity is 1.7-1.9 kJ;
- the thermal conductivity is in the range of 0.07-0.25 W;
- the thickness of the material varies between 10-38 mm.
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The degree of harmfulness of the material
Chipboard is a relatively harmless material, despite the fact that it contains a certain amount of formaldehydes.
The MPC of formaldehyde for the working area is 0.5 mg/m3, and modern chipboard production technologies allow us to approximate the content of this indicator to 0.02 mg/m3.
It should also be taken into account that wood, which comes from a polluted area, can emit more harmful substances than chipboard.
According to the amount of formaldehyde resin content in the chipboard, the material is divided into two types:
Which is better: Chipboard or MDF?
The scope of use of chipboard is very extensive. This material is used for the manufacture of furniture, wall cladding of premises (laminated slabs), in repair and construction works. But chipboard is not recommended for use in rooms with high humidity. The material has high technical characteristics, thermal and sound insulation properties.
MDF, like chipboard, is made of wood chips and sawdust, but smaller fractions. However, the particles are bonded using lengin or paraffin, which makes the plates environmentally safe to use. Due to the presence of paraffin, MDF has increased moisture resistance. The material is used for the manufacture of interior door blocks and structures, furniture parts, for the installation of partitions. However, it is not recommended to use MDF as a flooring, since the plates are vulnerable to mechanical impact.
Chipboard is a universal building material that can be used in the manufacture of furniture, door panels, countertops, window sills, for flooring. The material has high strength and rigidity. By choosing chipboard, you can get an easy-to-process building material for a reasonable price.