Dimensions of the kitchen set: rules of ergonomic layout
Dimensions of the kitchen set: rules of ergonomic layout
According to scientists, a person spends about three years of his life in the kitchen, so it is very important that this room is as comfortably equipped as possible. Properly selected shape and size of the kitchen set have a positive effect on overall well-being, prevent fatigue, increase productivity and create a great mood. This article will tell you how to calculate and choose the dimensions of kitchen furniture correctly.
Features of kitchen furniture: sizes of headsets and their meaning
The basis of the furniture in any kitchen is a kitchen set. Furniture must meet certain requirements that are designed to fulfill the main task – to create functionality and comfort during work and rest indoors.
It is fundamentally important that every centimeter of the available space is used with maximum rationality, and all cabinets fit exactly into the layout of the room. It is especially necessary that the dimensions of the furniture correspond to the growth of the tenants of the house. They should not make much effort to get items from high shelves or excessively deep cabinets.
That is why, when calculating the standard sizes of the kitchen set, scientists and engineers were guided by the average anthropometric characteristics of people of the Caucasian race, which include the growth of the body at rest and in the process of performing certain movements: bends, squats, stretching the arms in width and height. Based on these calculations, the standard dimensions of kitchen sets and household appliances were also determined.
Nevertheless, quite often in the modern layout of the kitchen space, non-standard sizes of the headset are used in order to make the most rational use of the space available in the room. In such cases, furniture can be made to order, taking into account the individual requirements of the owners of the house or apartment.
Standard kitchen sizes in standard set designs
The dimensions of the kitchen set are dictated by the area and shape of the room, the features of the supply of communications, the location of windows and doorways, the presence of protrusions and niches. All these measurements must be made with extreme accuracy and displayed in the working designs of kitchen sets with dimensions. The document itself, in addition to the listed components, must include the following mandatory parameters:
- dimensions of household appliances;
- standard countertop size;
- height, width and depth of cabinets (separate upper and lower tiers).
Useful advice! Information about the dimensions of the built-in equipment, in case of purchasing a ready-made headset from the manufacturer, can be found in the technical data sheet, the dimensions of all components of the furniture set are also indicated there.
Let’s consider the individual parameters according to which typical kitchen designs are compiled. In particular, the standard height of the kitchen countertop is 85-90 cm. The thickness of the countertop made of laminated chipboard varies in the range from 28 to 38 mm. Its standard length should correspond to the indicators 305 and 420 cm, and the depth is 60, 80 or 120 cm.
When planning a kitchen, you should start from the dimensions of the kitchen set indicated in the table of standards (drawings display these parameters):
|Cabinet type||Height, cm||Width, cm||Depth, cm|
|Upper tier||60-90 in 5 cm increments||30-100, in increments of 10, from 60 to 20 cm||30|
|Lower tier||80-90||30-100, in increments of 10, from 60 to 20 cm||50|
|Cabinet under the hood||40||50-90||30|
|Corner cabinet||60-90||55-60 (symmetrical in both directions)||60|
The dimensions of the bottle holder in the kitchen set, also referred to as a cargo net, can be selected individually, depending on the dimensions of the room. Its height depends on the height of the lower tier, and the standard width can be 15, 20, 30 cm.
The height of the kitchen set from the floor to the countertop
To understand the data given in the table, it is necessary to consider in more detail each of the components of the kitchen set. In particular, the height of the kitchen set from the floor to the countertop and the dimensions of the lower tier play an important role in the proper arrangement. The placement of the countertop is very important, since the convenient location of the hands during cooking depends on it.
The standard height of the countertop in the kitchen from the floor is 85 cm, if the average height of the apartment’s inhabitants is 170 cm. For people of small stature, the lower tier can be lowered by 5 cm – up to 80 cm. For tall households, the countertop, on the contrary, should be raised to 90 cm.
The countertop should protrude above the lower cabinets by about 5 cm, and at the back – by 10 cm. Its depth can range from 40 to 100 cm. The average size is 60 cm . The calculations take into account the length of the arms and the dimensions of the built-in and desktop household appliances.
If the headsets are shallow, some appliances may simply not fit on the countertop, the selected hob will not fit into the space reserved for it, and a wider plate will simply stand out against the background of the headset. If the width is excessively large, then a person will have difficulty reaching for objects located against the wall.
The width of the cabinets of the lower tier can vary from 30 to 80 cm. The swing of the doors when opening should not exceed 50 cm. In order to save space in small kitchens, it is better to choose furniture with drawers and cabinets.
Useful advice! The height of the working surface of the kitchen may vary. The owners themselves choose the right location of the countertop thanks to the adjustable legs on the headset.
Standard height of the kitchen: dimensions of the cabinets of the upper tier
The optimal distance from the countertop to the upper cabinets of the headset is 45 cm. Such dimensions allow a person to freely get items from the upper shelves (most often glasses and cups) without stretching and standing on tiptoe. For tall people, these standards can be violated. The upper cabinets can be of various sizes, their height depends on the height of the ceilings and the individual preferences of the owners and ranges from 45 to 100 cm.
Thus, the total standard height of the kitchen can be from 180 to 250 cm. Sometimes storage systems can be located at a higher level, where items that are not often used in everyday life are usually placed. To get them, you will need a special stand or an ordinary stool.
The standard depth of the upper tier cabinets is 30 cm, it is calculated taking into account the typical sizes of dishes. More items can be placed in deeper cabinets, but their location on the same level with the lower tier will be very uncomfortable in practical terms: it will be inconvenient to get dishes from the depth, and the head will be exposed to bumps on protruding cabinets. The width of the hinged cabinets should be synchronized with the furniture of the lower row and range from 30 to 80 cm.
Experts recommend installing the hood at a height of 70 to 80 cm. At the same time, it is better to be guided by the passport for the operation of specific devices. Usually the distance for gas stoves is slightly less – at the level of 70-75 cm, and for electric cooking surfaces this indicator is 75-80 cm. If you violate these requirements and place the hood higher, then its work will be less effective. If installed lower, it will fail much faster due to exposure to high temperatures.
Working triangle and kitchen standards: rules of ideal placement
A special role in creating the right layout in the kitchen is played by the so-called rule of the working triangle. Compliance with this aspect of ergonomics allows you to rationally distribute space and make it as easy as possible to work in the kitchen. The range of this zone includes three places:
- the work surface of the countertop and the stove;
- the area of the refrigerator and cabinets with products;
- the location of the sink.
Thus, the triangle area includes such important functional appliances as a refrigerator, stove and sink. At the same time, their location in the neighborhood is absolutely undesirable. Ideally, each of the components should be located in one of the corners of an imaginary triangle.
There are many options for placing furniture taking into account the working triangle. This useful functionality provides free access to the listed items and the safety of their use. Thus, without particularly changing the position of the body, a person can easily reach each of the zones. Simply put, everything you need is at hand during the cooking process.
Useful advice! The width of the doors of cabinets should vary in the range of 30-45 cm. Wider sashes will not be very convenient to open.
An important point in creating a drawing of a kitchen set with dimensions is the competent arrangement of items related to large household appliances. The dimensions of the built-in washing machine or dishwasher are necessarily taken into account when developing a sketch of the lower tier. The width of the refrigerator should provide a certain margin, since this unit vibrates during operation and should not fit closely to the wall and walls of cabinets.
Making sketches with the sizes of kitchen sets in accordance with the parameters of the kitchen
Thus, the standard dimensions of cabinets and compliance with the triangle rule in the complex will help to create an ideal drawing for a specific kitchen. At the same time, the distance between the functional zones should not exceed twice the length of the outstretched arm. During the cooking process, you have to move items from the refrigerator to the sink to wash or clean the food. Next, the ingredients are transferred immediately to the work surface, and from there to the stove.
After completing the work, the person returns to the refrigerator again to put the products that are left in it, or to put a ready-made dish. In addition, during the cooking process, there should be cabinets with spices and other products at hand. Therefore, it is very important to calculate everything correctly when sketching kitchens so that the room is as functional and ergonomic as possible.
The scheme with the dimensions of the kitchen set should be based on the parameters of the kitchen itself. At the same time, the minimum number of modules intended for installation should be 3 pcs. One of them is a sink cabinet with a sink, the second module is a stove or part of a headset with a cut–in hob, the third is a work area with a countertop. It is absolutely necessary to provide a place for a refrigerator. If there is additional space, additional modules for washing machines and dishwashers, a compartment with a retractable trash can are installed.
Kitchen set: photos of beautiful and functional furniture options
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Zoning of space by height: dimensions of the kitchen set and its functionality
Regardless of whether the standard dimensions of kitchen facades are selected or individual drawings of the headset are made, taking into account the distance from the floor, the kitchen is conditionally divided into functional zones:
- very low;
Very low is at the level of 40 cm from the floor. This is a place with minimal access, as it is poorly visible. In order to get the necessary item, you need to bend down properly or even sit down. In such places, as a rule, heavy, rarely used items are stored, for example, heavy frying pans.
The low zone starts at 40 cm from the floor and does not reach the upper edge of the lower cabinets ‒ up to 75 cm. In use, this zone is not very convenient, as it requires slopes to get the right items. This is an ideal place to place items that may be needed 1-2 times during the cooking process. In such cabinets it is best to store small household appliances, bowls and pots.
Useful advice! Functional areas are designed taking into account the standard height of the kitchen set, which has standard dimensions, for people with a height of 170 cm. In individual kitchen projects, the height of the zones, as well as the height of the cabinets, can be changed according to personal needs.
The middle part of the kitchen, located in the range from 75 to 190 cm, is considered the most convenient. It is in this zone that all things and products are perfectly visible, and you can easily reach the right object without standing on tiptoe or bending over. Everyday household items that are constantly used in the cooking process should be stored here. These are cutlery, knives, cups, spoons and other utensils.
The high zone is located at a height of more than 190 cm . In the upper part, it is best to save items that are light in weight and rarely used in everyday life, for example, baking molds.
Installation of a kitchen set: furniture dimensions and room dimensions
Kitchen headsets should be chosen based on the type of room layout, which is not always standard. For example, in a square or rectangular room, as a rule, there are no special problems – you can buy almost any headset there. In kitchens with a non-standard layout, where there are beveled corners, various niches or, conversely, external corners and bulges on the walls, it is a little more difficult. In this case, it is better to resort to the manufacture of furniture according to your project.
Most modern manufacturers specialize in individual design services, creating sketches and drawings taking into account the specific dimensions of the kitchen and the features of its layout. To do this, specialists are provided in the staff who go to the place, personally make measurements and make calculations according to the size of the kitchen. Standards are also present in special projects. For example, designers start from such dimensions as the size of the upper cabinet door, which is 72×45 cm, which is considered ideal in everyday life.
Based on the location of communications and the features of the room, a drawing is created with specific dimensions of the kitchen set. The standard of dimensions is observed in those places where they can be sustained as much as possible. In general, the project itself should reflect the maximum rational use of each centimeter of usable area. The implementation of the project and the headset manufacturing process itself begin only after agreement with the customer.
Kitchen sets, according to the layout features, can be of the following types:
Direct layout of a kitchen set for a standard-plan kitchen
The direct layout type is considered the most budget-friendly, and therefore the most affordable option. This is a versatile set of furniture that will fit perfectly into any standard kitchen space. With sufficient space, the direct layout will allow you to arrange a cozy and functional workplace.
Externally, such a kitchen set consists of two rows of cabinets located along one longest wall. Corners and turns are not provided here. In the case when the length of the straight kitchen exceeds 3.7 m, it is necessary to consider an option involving the location of the refrigerator in the other side, so that the rule of the functional triangle is observed. If this principle is violated, you will have to move along one wall all the time, which will lead to rapid fatigue and low work efficiency.
Useful advice! In order to use the space ergonomically, it is advisable to purchase a three-tiered headset with a maximum height from floor to ceiling. Such a trick will help not only to use the space effectively, but also to visually enlarge the kitchen.
This layout has its own special advantages, in particular:
- the price of a ready-made direct headset is much lower than the cost of a set of individual cabinets or custom-made furniture;
- a wide range of options, furniture can be picked up at home, using special catalogs of kitchen sets;
- to determine the right size of the headset, it is enough to measure the length and height of the working wall.
Corner kitchen set for the kitchen: photos with examples of layout options
The angular layout of the kitchen set is deservedly considered the most popular, as it fits perfectly into rooms of any size. It can solve the problem of rational use of space in a small-sized Khrushchev, as well as furniture will look organically in a spacious studio apartment of a new building. Standard corner headsets have the shape of the letter G or L, in individual layouts there may be layouts in the form of the letter P or even L.
The main task of such a headset is to create the most convenient conditions for cooking. At the same time, the rule of the functional triangle, including a stove, sink and refrigerator, must be observed. The maximum distance between these zones should not exceed 1.5 m – otherwise kitchen work will be burdened with unnecessary movements.
During the development of the project, it is necessary to pay special attention to the depth of the kitchen set in the corner and its configuration. The beveled corner looks beautiful and original, but this option is not suitable for people of small stature or overweight, since it is difficult to reach the corner sink and the upper shelves in the corner cabinet. Washing the wall with a sink in the corner will also be problematic. Therefore, the ideal solution is a rectangular headset with a small corner depth.
A U-shaped kitchen is suitable for square-shaped rooms. The headset of this layout has two corners at once, and the cabinets are located along three walls. The U-shape can be found in the kitchen with a bar counter, which serves as a perpendicular extension of the countertop. This arrangement is typical for rooms connected to the living room or dining room, where the bar counter contributes to the zoning of the space.
The sizes of island-type kitchens: illustrative examples of design
A kitchen set with an island layout necessarily includes an additional module that stands apart from the main set of furniture. Usually the island is located in the center of the room and, as a rule, has a built-in sink and cooking surface.
The height of the stand-alone module should be equal to the height of the main headset. The standard dimensions of the lower tier, as mentioned above, are 85-90 cm. At the same time, in individual projects, the size of the island can be changed at the request of the customer. For example, this is relevant in the case of the location of the sink on the island and the need to observe a certain slope of the drain pipes.
Important! To prevent an imbalance in the environment and create overall harmony in the room, the height of the island should not exceed the height of the main kitchen set by more than 20 cm.
Most often, the island-type layout is present in kitchens where a corner-type built-in kitchen set is installed, where all household appliances are harmoniously integrated and the space along the walls is fully occupied. Such an environment gives the impression that the furniture is an integral part of the room.
Non-standard kitchen set sizes: design principles
Quite often, the use of standard sizes of kitchen cabinets is impossible due to the peculiarities of the shape of the room or because of its excessively small area. In such cases, the drawing of each locker and cabinet is compiled separately, taking into account certain characteristic nuances. The most common non–standard layout options are small kitchen sets. At the same time, there are other cases when it becomes necessary to use non-standard furniture.
Niches and ledges in the wall. In such cases, the depth and shape of the cabinet may vary depending on the deformation of the wall or the size of the kitchen corner. For example, if there is a niche 20 cm deep behind the headset, then the depth of the cabinet can be extended by 15-18 cm. In the opposite situation, when there is a protrusion on the wall, the depth of the cabinet will simply need to be reduced. For this purpose, it is enough to cut out the back wall taking into account the protrusion.
Communications and sockets. If they are available, it is necessary to provide free access to important communication schemes. These can be electrical nodes, water, sewer and gas connections, ventilation ducts, common valves and taps. Electrical outlets should generally be freely available. That is why it is fundamentally important that all communications find their reflection on the schematic image of the headset, where the dotted line shows the alleged incisions and incisions in the cabinets.
Individual design of a kitchen set with complex shapes and configurations of furniture items. In this case, each furniture component is made according to individual sizes in accordance with a separate drawing, where all the difficult moments should be accurately depicted in an enlarged form.
Choosing the right size of the headset is a responsible and complex process, especially if we are talking about a non–standard kitchen. It is very important to carry out careful planning and measurements of the room, take into account the average height of the adult inhabitants of the house and decide on the material, color and shape of the facades of the kitchen set. Provided the correct arrangement of cabinets and appliances, observing the rules of ergonomics and functional triangle, you can get a stylish and comfortable kitchen design, where cooking will bring only pleasure.