Covering material for greenhouses and greenhouses: optimal microclimate for the harvest
Covering material for greenhouses and greenhouses is a modern way to protect plants from pests, active sun and adverse weather conditions. It not only has protective properties, but also helps to create an optimal climate for obtaining a good harvest. There are several types of covering materials on the market, each of which has its own advantages and features.
Covering material for greenhouses and greenhouses: characteristics, types and features of application
Farmers and amateur gardeners know that planting plants in an enclosed ground allows them to grow crops that are not always adapted to the local climate. Greenhouses and greenhouses of different designs are commonplace in fields and suburban areas. However, their effectiveness can become much higher if you use a modern covering material – agrofibre.
This nonwoven synthetic material has the following features:
- it passes moisture perfectly, but has almost zero hygroscopicity;
- environmentally friendly material, harmless to plants and humans;
- protects plants from UV radiation;
- protects against excessive precipitation and extreme weather conditions, such as hail or hurricane wind;
- serves as protection against pests and birds;
- retains heat inside the structure with small frosts on the ground and levels day and night temperature changes;
- it passes air without obstacles;
- does not contribute to the formation of condensation;
- easy to use and store;
- it has strength and abrasion resistance;
- does not rot and does not mold during operation;
- the service life is several years.
Pay attention! Non-woven covering material is environmentally friendly. It consists of polypropylene fibers that are glued together under the influence of high temperatures.
The combination of these properties makes it possible to increase crop yields by 20% thanks to a properly selected covering material. Its price is comparable to the cost of polyethylene film, which for many gardeners will be a pleasant surprise. At the same time, if we take into account the excellent characteristics and long service life of non-woven material, then its purchase is more profitable. For example, tomatoes under the covering material can grow until they are fully ripe in the open ground, while the film cannot guarantee a successful result.
Types of coating for greenhouses made of agrofibre
In specialized stores and the Internet, you can find a wide range of covering materials for greenhouses and greenhouses. Its price varies within various limits and depends mainly on the manufacturer, application features, density and method of packaging (rolls or threaded sheets).
For all types of covering materials of any manufacturers, classification by color is characteristic:
- the white covering material has a different density and is used for covering plants, forming greenhouses and greenhouses.;
- black is a covering material from weeds, it is always very dense and fits only on the ground for mulching.
Important! Black and white covering materials are not interchangeable. Use each of them for its intended purpose: white – top, black – bottom.
The density of the covering cloth is the next defining sorting parameter. To make it easier for the consumer to navigate the modifications, manufacturers indicate the density level in the product name. For example, Agrotex 30 has a density of 30 g/m2, and Agrotex 60 has a density of 60 g/m2, respectively. The larger the number after the name, the higher the density of the material.
The density value directly affects the use of agrofibre and its cost. With the same canvas sizes, the price of a covering material for a greenhouse or greenhouse will always be higher for products with a higher density level than the cost of a similar thin material, for example, for a frameless crop shelter.
The most popular representatives of nonwoven agrofibre in the domestic market are:
Let’s take a closer look at what each of these materials is, and get acquainted with their practical application for growing garden crops.
Protective properties and marking of the covering material “Agrospan”
Agrospan is the most durable in use among all covering cloths: its service life is up to 5 years. However, this is not his only advantage. Agrospan allows you to:
- protect cultivated plants from diseases, pests, UV radiation, hail, acid rain and pesticides;
- prevent the death of plantings from frost (guaranteed to protect plants at temperatures up to -4 ° C, but is able to maintain properties up to -7 ° C);
- to stabilize the moisture level in the soil, thereby reducing the abundance of watering;
- optimize the air exchange mode in a closed area;
- reduce the range of temperature differences day and night;
- reduce labor costs for growing crops by 5 times;
- increase yield by 20%.
The form of release of the material is 10 m long pieces of cloth of various widths and densities. The color is black or white (depending on the purpose).
Pay attention! Agrospan creates an optimal microclimate, so a greenhouse or greenhouse does not need mandatory ventilation.
Marking of “Agrospan” and its purpose:
|Name||Colour||Appointment||Season of use|
|Agrospan 17||white||shelter of crops and seedlings in a frameless way, protection from diseases and pests, protection from UV radiation||spring – autumn|
|Agrospan 30||frameless shelter or tension on a light tunnel-type frame, protection from diseases and pests, light frost protection, winter shelters for perennial plants||all year round|
|Agrospan 42||frame shelter, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -2 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants||all year round|
|covering material for greenhouses and greenhouses of various designs, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -4 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants||all year round|
|black||mulching, ground film from weeds||spring — autumn|
Spectrum of colors and possibilities of covering material “Agrotex”
The main characteristics of Agrotex fiber are plant protection, which is inherent in all types of non–woven covering materials, plus excellent performance in maintaining the microclimate at subzero temperatures.
The advantages of the material include:
- the lightness of the canvas;
- high thermal protection properties;
- resistance to creasing, rotting, and wear;
- resistance to adverse weather conditions;
- good light transmission capacity – up to 90%;
- promotes the penetration of water and air, and repels dust;
- does not form condensation inside;
- it has a high breaking load, allowing the material to be used without loss of properties for several seasons;
- the presence of a wide canvas with reinforced edges in the assortment.
- packages with classic material for a 1.6 m wide suburban area in white and black colors;
- rolls with classic canvas for farms 1.6-1.9 m wide in white and black colors with reinforced edges;
- packages and rolls with reinforced and reinforced-laminated material with a width of 1.6 or 3 m.
Labeling of “Agrotex” and its purpose:
|Name||Colour||Appointment||Season of use|
|Agrotex 17 UV||white||shelter of crops and seedlings in a frameless way, protection from diseases and pests, easy protection from frost up to -2 ° C, protection from UV radiation||spring – autumn|
|Agrotex 30 UV||frameless shelter, protection from diseases and pests, frost protection up to -6 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||spring – autumn|
|Agrotex 42 UV||frame shelter with arches, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -7 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||all year round|
|Agrotex 60 UV||material for greenhouses and greenhouses of various designs, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -9 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||all year round|
|Agrotex 60 UV|
Agrotex mulch 60-80 UV
|black||mulching, UV protection, ground weed film||spring – autumn|
Pay attention! All manufactured modifications of the Agrotex canvas contain a UV filter. In the labeling, it is designated as UV.
In addition to the classic color solutions, Agrotex is available in two-layer color versions, the properties of which are significantly improved. Greenhouses and greenhouses under such material increase yields and shorten the ripening time of fruits.
Characteristics of two-layer canvases “Agrotex”:
|Colour||Appointment||Properties of the top layer||Properties of the lower layer|
|Red-yellow||from frosts and pests||the top layer is red, accelerates flowering, increases productivity, keeps warm at night||the bottom layer is yellow, actively fights pests without chemicals|
|White-red||from frost + growth rate||the top layer is white, protects against overheating and excessive UV radiation||the bottom layer is red, protects from frost up to -9 ° C, keeps heat well, increases growth, accelerates flowering, increases yield|
|White-silver foil||additional light and heat||the top layer and the base are white, have all the properties of the classic “Agrotex” for greenhouses and greenhouses||internal silvery stripes additionally direct light towards plants, compensating for its deficiency, accelerate photosynthesis, and increase yields|
|White reinforced||for greenhouses||reinforcement increases the wear resistance of the material, resistance to deformation and extreme weather events, while maintaining breathability|
|White reinforced laminated||for greenhouses||the top layer is laminated, i.e. it has the properties of a polyethylene film not to let water through||the inner one is white reinforced, increases wear resistance, eliminates the “lens effect” from the top layer, prevents the formation of condensation|
The use of the covering material “Lutrasil” in the suburban area
“Lutrasil” is the lightest of the covering materials considered in this article, however, despite this property, it is able to protect plants from hail and frost. In the suburban area, it is used to shelter seedlings from pests and bad weather, as well as to protect perennial plants in winter, for mulching and weed control. It simplifies the care of plants and increases crop yields.
Main characteristics of agrofibre “Lutrasil”:
- excellent light conductivity – up to 92%;
- water permeable: can be watered directly on top of the canvas without opening it;
- it passes air and does not create a greenhouse effect;
- protects plants from frost up to -6 °C;
- it is not afraid of frost, so it can be stored anywhere in winter;
- good wear resistance: it serves for 3 seasons without deterioration of characteristics and appearance, but it can be used for longer – up to 6 years;
- Convenient to use: can be folded, sewn, easy to unfold;
- good tensile strength.
The form of release of the material is rolls with a width of 1.6 and 7 m. The color is black or white (depending on the purpose).
Marking of “Lutrasil” and its purpose:
|Name||Colour||Appointment||Season of use|
|Thermoselect 17||white||shelter of crops and seedlings in a frameless way, protection from pests, easy protection from frost up to -2 ° C||spring – autumn|
|Thermoselect 23||frameless shelter, pest protection, frost protection up to -3 °C, winter shelters for perennial plants||all year round|
|Frostselect 30||lightweight frame shelter, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -6 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||all year round|
|Frostselect 42||for greenhouses and greenhouses, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -6 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||all year round|
|Frostselect 60 UV||black||mulching, UV protection, ground weed film||spring – autumn|
Pay attention! All manufactured modifications of the “Lutrasil” canvas are able to protect plants from frost.
The use of the covering material “Agril”
“Agril” is a thin non–woven covering material that is used to protect plants in horticulture and horticulture from temperature changes, frost, dew, fog, wind, diseases and pests. It transmits light (80%), water and air. It copes well with maintaining the microclimate inside the shelter during temperature changes day and night, and also protects from frost up to -7 ° C. Promotes rapid germination of seeds and accelerates fruit ripening.
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The form of release of the material is bags and rolls of various widths and lengths of winding. The color is black or white (depending on the purpose).
Characteristics of the covering material “Agril”:
|Name||Colour||Appointment||Season of use|
|Agril 17||white||it is attached in a frameless way, pest protection, UV protection, light frost protection up to -2 °C||spring – autumn|
|Agril 23||frameless shelter, pest protection, frost protection up to -3°C, UV protection, winter shelters for perennial plants||all year round|
|Agril 30||lightweight frame shelter, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -5 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||all year round|
|Agril 50||for greenhouses and greenhouses, protection from wind gusts and hail, frost protection up to -7 ° C, winter shelters for perennial plants, UV protection||all year round|
|Agril 50||black, black and white||mulching, UV protection, ground weed film||spring – autumn|
How to choose a covering material for greenhouses or greenhouses
As the above characteristics of covering materials show, they have many common parameters. In deciding which covering material is better to choose, one should be guided not by the name and manufacturer of the canvas, but by its purpose. It is also worth considering climatic conditions, the duration of the warm period, the frequency of sudden frosts, wind, etc.
When using any type of agrofibre, first of all you need to pay attention to its density and color. For frame structures, a white canvas is used. Some manufacturers have its modifications in terms of color scheme and strength enhancement – reinforcement. These preferences are purely individual.
The optimal density of the covering material is determined by the following parameters:
- the time of planting plants in the ground;
- height of growth of garden crops;
- climate conditions;
- the height and type of construction of the shelter being constructed.
Which covering material is better for a greenhouse or greenhouse? First of all, the one with a density of more than 30 g / m2, as well as having a UV stabilizer. For greenhouse constructions, the densest agrofibre is always chosen – 50 g/m2 and above. For greenhouses of low arc structures, a canvas marked with a density of 30-40 will be quite enough.
UV stabilizer affects the durability of the covering material and the preservation of its original properties for several seasons. Visually, it is impossible to determine the presence of a stabilizer in agrofibre, so it is worth buying products packaged in production, having the appropriate manufacturer’s marking and protective signs.
Pay attention! If you buy agrofibre in rolls, then you can save money on the shelter of a greenhouse or greenhouse. The remaining unused part of the roll is stored for an unlimited amount of time.
How to use a covering material for greenhouses and greenhouses
Non-woven covering material is very unpretentious in care and easy to use. However, when using it for the first time, it is worth knowing several important aspects that will help preserve the properties of agrofibre, avoid financial losses and disappointments when growing garden crops. For example, it is necessary to take into account which side to put the covering material on the greenhouse, whether it can be cleaned, what to do if the canvas is not enough to completely cover the structure, etc.
Let’s focus on the main aspects of using a covering cloth.
Methods of laying covering material for greenhouses
Agrofibre canvases are never cut prematurely. Initially, a frame or arches are installed for the greenhouse, they begin to work with the covering material only after this stage is implemented. The canvas is placed on top of the arcs, creating allowances from all sides of at least 20 cm, and cut off only after performing all the necessary measurements. The length of the web is calculated not from the edge of the first arc to the last, but taking into account the closed ends of the greenhouse. Working with nonwoven fabric is similar to the process of covering arcs with a film.
The covering material is available in different widths. However, it may happen that it will not be possible to completely cover the entire greenhouse with one piece of agrofibre. In this case, the canvases are overlapped together, the joints are glued with an adhesive thermal gun or sewn with a thread. You can use a sewing machine.
Before finally fixing the canvas on the arcs, it is worth figuring out which side to cover. The covering material for the greenhouse has different properties of the upper and lower layers. This must be taken into account. It is easier when the material is two-tone: the manufacturer indicates on the packaging how to distinguish the upper and lower sides. If the canvas is white, then it is determined visually and by touch: the smooth side fits down, the “rough” with holes – up.
You can check on a new piece of packaging in which direction the cloth passes water. When buying a roll coating, you need to know that the material is wrapped with the top layer outwards. With a completely homogeneous (on both sides) the material does not care which side to stack it.
How and how to fix the covering material
When the agrofibre is successfully laid on the arcs, it remains to fix it securely. It is possible to fix the covering material on the arcs of the greenhouse with both specialized materials and improvised means. The garden equipment store sells special plastic clips or clips for fixing: they are suitable for both film and agrofibre. Knowing the diameter of the arcs, you can choose the right size.
If there is an old hose in the farm, then it is cut into segments, cut them lengthwise and put on as a clamp on an arc with a covering material. However, if the hose is not rigid enough, then with strong gusts of wind, the coating will fly off. Therefore, it is better to replace the hose with a plastic pipe, from which a segment corresponding to approximately ¼ of the diameter is cut along the length. It is recommended to treat the sharp edges of the pipe sections with sandpaper.
Some gardeners use ordinary stationery binders of large size to fix agrofibre. Such fastening requires additional padding, for example, with a piece of fabric, so that the canvas does not break through over time.
The bottom of the covering material on the greenhouse is fixed with special pegs or pressed with bricks, wooden beams and other weights.
Pay attention! When installing fasteners, it is worth considering that for plants that need pollination, it should be possible to open a greenhouse when they bloom.
Non-woven covering material allows you to sew a real cover for a greenhouse. Knowing the installation step of the supports, transverse “pockets” are sewn on the canvas, into which arcs are then inserted. In this case, the installation of the greenhouse involves changing the order of installation of the structure.
How to clean and where to store the covering material
The duration of operation of the agrofibre always corresponds to the expiration date specified by the manufacturer. The material can last much longer if treated carefully. After removal from the greenhouse, the canvas should be dried, folded and stored in a dry dark place. The densest frost-resistant covering materials can remain on the site all year round.
If the covering product gets dirty during the application period, it is recommended to clean it with a sponge or a soft brush. In case of heavy contamination, the canvas can be washed with soap or powder.
Any amateur gardener or farmer wants to get high yields every year, while spending a minimum of effort on caring for plants. The use of non–woven covering material is the right step towards the realization of this task.