Channel: product sizes or how to choose a suitable profile
Channel is a popular material used to create various metal structures and frame structures. The condition for the correct selection of profiles is selection by size, weight and determination of the required quantity. Gosstandart has developed the requirements that the channels must meet. Dimensions, weight, density and their ratio – all this includes the corresponding tables of a certain GOST. Descriptions of the most popular sizes are given in the article.
Channel size tables in accordance with GOST
A channel is a fairly popular rolled metal product made from different grades of steel. The term itself is of German origin. The main distinguishing feature of the profile is the U-shaped shape of the product in cross section.
Special equipment is used for the manufacture of channels. According to the method of production, hot-rolled or bent profiles differ. According to the shape of the faces of the shelves, they can be parallel or have a certain slope inside. The classification is also based on a numerical value in the form of a number near the corresponding marking. The numbers indicate the size, which is determined by the distance between the sides of the shelves outside.
The manufacture of channels, like other rolled metal products, is regulated by the relevant GOST, where the basic requirements for a particular type of profile are clearly spelled out. All data is clearly shown in the tables. For example, the regulatory document “Hot-rolled steel channels. The assortment” (GOST 8240 97) contains 7 such expanded tables.
Using the corresponding tabular data, you can determine the quality of the product by correlating its actual dimensions with those described in the GOST. Ideally, the indicators should completely coincide, although sometimes metal products are made to order. Individual profiles are produced in small batches – for a specific project. The prices of custom-made channels differ from the cost of mass-produced products.
The standard height of the channels ranges from 50 to 400 mm, the width of the shelves – from 32 to 115 mm. The permissible error (in comparison with the specified standard dimensions) can be a maximum of 3 mm. The measured length of the channels corresponds to an indicator from 4 to 13 m.
The weight of the channels, their marking and symbols
Special marking is used to designate different types of channels. The letter denotes the type of profile, characterizing the features of the structure and the location of the faces:
- “P” – indicates parallelism;
- “Y” – indicates the presence of a slope on the edges;
- “E” – indicates economy;
- “L” – implies lightness;
- “C” – indicates the special purpose of the profile.
Useful advice! The numerical indicator near the letter indicates the size of the product, it corresponds to the height given in the GOST table. It should be noted that usually the channels are marked with numerical values in centimeters, and their height in the table is indicated in millimeters. Visually it looks like this: channel 8, channel weight 12 or channel dimensions 16P.
In addition to the height of the product, other dimensions are also used. They have special designations in the tables:
- h is the height of the profile, which is the main value determining the size of rolled metal products;
- b – indicates the width of the shelves;
- S is an indicator of the thickness of the main wall;
- R – defines the radius of the rounded inner part of the shelf;
- t – indicates the thickness of the shelves;
- r is the value of the total radius of roundness of the shelves.
An important indicator in the choice of material (when designing construction) is the weight of the channel. The correct calculation of data allows you to accurately calculate the amount of necessary products and, thus, save on its purchase. There are several methods for calculating the weight of a linear meter. They depend on the method of manufacturing rolled products. For example, to determine the specific mass of a hot-rolled channel, the radii of the inner rounding and rounding of the shelves are taken into account.
Determination of the weight and price of the channel per meter: size chart, cost of profiles
Complex calculations of specific gravity, in addition to mathematical skills, also require updating the school course of physics and geometry. Therefore, it is better to use ready-made calculations given in special tables, or use an online calculator. To do this, it is enough to enter the necessary data and get an accurate result.
The cost of the channels is determined in accordance with the linear meters. The price formation is influenced by the height of the profile, which determines the product number, as well as the grade of steel from which the products are made. For example, a channel made of low-alloy steel will cost an order of magnitude more than similar products made of carbon steel. This is due to the fact that the first type of raw material has increased strength characteristics.
The current average prices for channels in the Russian rolled metal market are shown in the table:
|Channel number||The mass of the linear meter, kg||Length in ton, m||Price per running meter, rub.|
The general table is shown above. In order to have an idea about each type of channel, its individual features, dimensions and characteristics, it is worth getting acquainted with each of the types in more detail. Below, as an example, we will consider the most popular types and sizes of channels that have high demand and wide application.
Characteristics of channel 10: dimensions, weight, cost
The range of channel 10, as a fairly popular rolled metal product, is quite wide. The characteristics of its varieties and species are regulated by GOST No. 8240, developed back in 1989. The properties of the products include the parameters of the shelves and walls, in particular their height and width, and the radii of the rounding of the channels marked 10U are taken into account.
Channel 10 has three subtypes with the corresponding marking:
- Y – profile, in which the internal shelves are made with a slope;
- P – channel, where the edges of the shelves have a parallel arrangement;
- E – economical products with parallel placement of shelves.
Useful advice! Each channel type has its own designation, for example, 10P, 10U or 10E. The corresponding values are contained in a separate table. Despite the same numerical data, these are different types of products.
The most used in various industries is, due to its size, the channel 10P. It is widely used in individual construction for the construction of load-bearing structures. The number 10 in the marking, in fact, indicates its height equal to 100 mm, and the letter P indicates the type of profile, while emphasizing the parallel arrangement of the shelves. This type of channel has the following parameters:
- the width is 46 mm;
- wall thickness – 4.5 mm;
- shelf thickness – 7.6 mm;
- radius of curvature – 7 mm;
- the radius of rounding on the edge of the shelf is 4 mm.
To determine the weight of the channel 10, it is necessary to know the cross-sectional area. This indicator corresponds to 10.9 cm2. The channel of this type is produced in length from 4 to 12 m. Longer products are made to order. The weight of 1 meter of channel 10 with a steel density of 7.85 g / cm3, according to calculations, is 8.59 kg. The error in the specified mass values may be 3-5%. The average price of a channel 10 per meter is 356 rubles.
The main parameters of channel 12: dimensions, weight and cost
A metal product called channel 12 with parallel shelves has a body thickness of 7.8 mm, walls – 4.8 mm. Produce such products with a length of 2 to 12 m. Longer copies can be made to order. The popularity of this type of profile is due to its positive qualities, concluded in the optimal ratio of weight, strength and relatively low cost.
Profiles made of low-alloy steel are subject to operation at high temperatures and under conditions of increased exposure to chemicals. Also, the products perfectly resist compression and bending, but at the same time they resist torsion poorly.
The weight of 1 meter of channel 12 can be found by using the table above or using an online calculator. The price of the product depends on this parameter. According to the table, the weight of the channel 12 per 1 meter is 10.4 kg.
Like channels of other sizes, this type of product has additional markings with different characteristics. The most popular is the channel 12P, which has parallel shelves with faces without a slope.
The dimensions of the channel 12P are given below:
- width – 52 mm;
- the weight of the linear meter is 10.40 kg;
- the length in a ton is 95.94 m .
The channel with a mark of 12 has other series. For example, 12L is a rolled metal product with dimensions of 120×30 mm, characterized by inclined shelves. The weight of 1 m of such a profile is 5.02 kg, and the meter in 1 ton is 199 m.
Useful advice! The marking of the channel 12C indicates its special purpose, 12E – an economical series of products with shelves without tilt. Their standard size is 120×52 mm, and the weight is slightly lower – 10.24 kg. Accordingly, a ton of material contains almost 97 m.
Channel 14 variations: dimensions, weight, scope of application
U-shaped products marked 14, due to their high strength characteristics, are widely used in reinforced concrete products, used for reinforcing metal structures, as well as in various construction and restoration works. This type of product has its own series:
Channel 14, like other types of rolled metal, can be both with parallel shelves (marking “P”) and with inclined ones – mark “U”. There are common characteristics for both series:
- height – 140 mm;
- width – 58 mm;
- shelf thickness – 8.1 mm;
- wall thickness – 4.9 mm;
- weight of 1 meter channel 14 – 12.3 kg;
- in 1 ton there are 81.3 m products.
It should be noted that the weight of the channel 14 is strictly regulated by the requirements of a certain GOST. The maximum error cannot exceed 4.5% of the mass of all purchased products. Channels of this type are produced in lengths from 2 to 12 m. The cost of production depends on the series.
Channel 16 features: dimensions, weight and cost
Channel 16 is widely used to strengthen large-sized structures, such as bridges, supports, as well as when pouring the foundation of high-rise buildings. Technical features of a special series of rolled metal products provide for its use in mechanical engineering, car building and shipbuilding.
The range of channels: the ratio of characteristics as a guarantee of reliability
Types, labeling and characteristics of rolled u-shaped products. Requirements according to GOST, State Standard tables. Weight and dimensions of the channels.
The main feature is the slope of the faces in the middle of the products, which gives increased bending strength and torsional stability. This type of product has three series:
- 16P – used in installation work due to the ease of installation;
- 16U – is resistant to vertical loads, which suggests its use in areas with increased seismic activity;
- 16L – due to its light weight, it is used for the construction of monolithic structures and in shipbuilding.
All products comply with a specific GOST:
- 8240-97 – hot-rolled channels;
- 8278-83 – cold-bent channels with equal shelves;
- 8281-80 – bent with unequal shelves.
The standard dimensions of the channel 16 correspond to the following values:
- height – 160 mm;
- shelf width – 64 mm;
- wall thickness – 5 mm;
- the thickness of the shelf is 8.4 mm.
The weight of the channel 16 corresponds to the value of 14.2 kg. In one ton there are about 70 meters of rolled products. These indicators directly proportionally affect the pricing of the steel profile. For example, the average price of channel 16 per meter is 520 rubles. The products are produced in lengths from 2 to 12 m.
Useful advice! The length of the product affects the convenience of its transportation. That is why the production of channels over 12 m is not practiced. At the same time, it is this length that is the most popular, special autopatforms are designed just for it.
Weight, price, channel dimensions 20: all necessary profile information
Channel 20 belongs to the category of universal rolled metal products made of hot-rolled steel. It is used in almost all industries – not only in the construction of load-bearing structures, but also for the construction of bridges, in the automotive and wagon industries, as well as in heavy engineering. The production of products is regulated by several GOST standards, according to which technical characteristics and permissible deviations from the norm are established.
Channel 20 has three main types that meet certain requirements of the State Standard:
- general use and special purpose – GOST 8240-97;
- special for the automotive industry – GOST 19425-74;
- special for car building – GOST 5267.1-90.
For all these types of rolled products, common parameters are characteristic, such as the height, width of the shelves and the weight of the channel 20. It should be noted that the profile can be either equal-poled or with inclined shelf faces. The dimensional characteristics of the profile 20 are as follows:
- height – 200 mm;
- shelf width – 76 mm;
- wall thickness – 52 mm;
- the thickness of the shelf is 9 mm.
The mass of different types of channel may vary slightly. For example, a 20P channel has a weight of 1 meter equal to 18.4 kg. The P-channel 20 series is most in demand in the construction market. It is used both for the construction of frames, and for the construction of bridges, the creation of large machines, as well as for other purposes. According to GOST 8240-89 for hot-rolled and GOST 8278-83 for bent channels, profiles are made from 4 to 12 m long .
Channel: dimensions affecting the scope of application
Summing up the above, the conclusion suggests itself that a channel is a rolled metal product that is used for reinforcing reinforced concrete structures, for the production of crane products, electric supports, bridges, oil rigs and other large–scale structures. The wide range of use is due to the high level of strength and stability with a relatively small weight of the product. At the same time, different sizes of channels are applicable in specific areas or have a special purpose.
So, due to its compact size, channel 8 is widely used in individual construction as concrete lintels, and also serves for the manufacture of foundations in the construction of door and window openings. The channel 10, made by the method of hot rolling, is widely used due to its universal size and strength.
The channel 12 is also produced in the same way. Its main positive feature is excellent weldability. It is used to increase the load-bearing capacity of the structure and as reinforcement of structures. Channel 14 is produced using rolling machines. Reinforced rigidity suggests its use as load-bearing beams in ceilings during the construction of high-rise buildings, as well as in car building.
Useful advice! When choosing rolled metal products, it should be remembered that there are different series of channels. Profiles where the sides of the shelves are placed in parallel are marked with the letter “P”; special channels are marked “C”. Models with inclined internal faces of shelves are indicated by the letter “U”; economical profiles correspond to the mark “E”; the sign “L” implies lightweight versions of channels.
Channel 16, made by hot rolling, is widely used in the construction of high-rise buildings, as well as in the construction of metal supports for bridges. The dimensions of the channel 18 allow it to be used as reinforcement on high-rise structures and in structures with a high degree of load.
Profiles marked 20, 22, 24 belong to the category of high-strength. They are used in the construction of highly loaded buildings and structures that move. For example, the dimensions of the channel 24 suggest its use in the construction of sliding bridges, as well as cranes with high lifting capacity.
Channel 40, having maximum rigidity, is used in heavy industry, where enormous loads are provided, in shipbuilding, as well as for the construction of oil platforms.
Thus, channels are of great importance in construction, therefore they are widely used in its various fields. When choosing products, it is necessary to be guided in the range of sizes and to know the main characteristics of each type of channels. This will allow you to choose the right series and use this type of rolled metal products as efficiently as possible.