Boilers of long gorenje on firewood with their own hands, loading 24 hours
A solid fuel wood-fired boiler with a water circuit is installed in a house with permanent residence of people. The period between the fuel tabs of the classic unit does not exceed 4-8 hours. A working boiler is not left unattended. Upgraded boilers for long—term burning on firewood with their own hands allow you to change the time of the furnace, loading 24 hours is the optimal period of operation of the unit without intermediate fuel laying.Gorenje
Solid fuel boilers for heating a private house
The basic models of long-burning boilers with a water circuit on firewood for the house are distinguished by the material of manufacture, the design of the furnace, heat exchanger, chimney, method of loading and burning fuel.Gorenje
A long-burning wood boiler with a water circuit is equipped with a tubular (vertical) register or a jacket-type heat exchanger. Gorenje The case design practically eliminates the possibility of boiling water in systems with natural circulation.
A steel wood-burning boiler for long-term gorenje for heating the house has a low thermal inertia. The boiler circuit made of heat-resistant steel withstands sudden jumps in temperature and pressure in the system. The disadvantage of the material is the sensitivity to corrosion, which is enhanced by the temperature stress of the metal. The overhaul period of the steel unit is 15 years.
The walls of the cast-iron heat exchanger of a wood-burning boiler for heating a private house with batteries heat up and cool down for a long time. The brittle alloy is not designed for critical differences in the operating parameters of the system.
The advantage of cast iron is due to the amorphous nature of the material to oxygen corrosion. The service life of a boiler with a cast-iron heat exchanger, with proper operation of the unit, reaches 25 years.
The principle of operation of the long—term gorenje unit is forced, sequential, top-down directed wood decay, which releases methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Lack of oxygen slows down the speed of flame propagation. Additional thermal energy is generated by combustion of flue gas. The flow of the outgoing gorenje products washes the surface of the heat exchanger at the outlet of the boiler. The design allows loading of firewood once a day.
Table 1. Price of solid fuel long-burning boilers gorenje:
|Boiler brand (country of origin)||Price, rubles|
|Zota Mix — 32 (Russia)||38700|
|Stropuva Mini S8 (Baltic States)||58240|
|Solid fuel boiler for long-term combustion OROR N 412 (Czech Republic) Gorenje||51731|
Pay attention! The average price of long-term gorenje boilers for a house is 50 thousand rubles. The quality of the latest domestic developments of solid fuel boilers is a worthy competitor to foreign analogues.
Pyrolysis boilers of long-term gorenje
Pyrolysis units are one of the varieties of boilers for long—term gorenje. Step-by-step separation of the gorenje process increases efficiency and prolongs the operating time of the gas generator. The pyrolysis boiler furnace is separated by a special nozzle. In the first compartment, under the influence of high temperatures, the laying of firewood releases combustible gas. The second one is used for afterburning the decomposition products of wood. A minimum amount of ash is formed in the ash pan, and the chimney does not become overgrown with soot deposits.
Gas generator sets are designed for heating systems of residential buildings with an area of more than 100 m2.
Table 2. The price of pyrolysis boilers of long-term gorenje with a water circuit:
|Solid fuel pyrolysis boiler MS-16 (Russia)||132000|
|Buderus Logano S171-22 W steel pyrolysis boiler (Czech Republic)||202250|
|Solid fuel pyrolysis boiler Burzhuy — K STANDARD-20 (Russia)||49800|
|Gas generator boiler KO12 (Russia)||52494|
Pyrolysis wood boilers work for up to two days on a single fuel load. The cost of the product depends on the brand of the manufacturer, the power and the degree of equipment of the unit with automation.
Boilers of long gorenje on firewood with their own hands, loading 24 hours
The boiler power is selected in accordance with the structural characteristics of the house (area, total heat losses) and the climatic zone of the place of residence. As a rule, the efficiency of a self-made boiler of long-term gorenje on wood does not exceed 80% (i.e., a fifth of the heat from the combustion of fuel is lost in the boiler).
The lack of thermal power stimulates the operation of the generator in the intensive gorenje mode. Constant peak loads lead to overspending of firewood, excess heat loss twice and premature wear of the boiler.
Calculation of the size of the furnace for a long-burning boiler on gorenje
The type of wood, shape and length of the firewood determines the size and equivalent area of the furnace chamber. The specific and volumetric loading density, the heat that firewood emits during combustion are reference values. The calculation of the loading volume will help to calculate fuel consumption for the season, organize fuel storage locations.
Important! The quality of the firewood affects the burning process. gorenje. The high content of resins in coniferous wood and the high humidity of freshly cut wood reduces the efficiency of the boiler. Incomplete combustion of raw firewood leads to the deposition of soot and tar on the surface of the water circuit, the walls of the furnace and chimney. Metal oxidizes, transfers heat worse, burns out quickly.
Table 3. Volumetric heat of combustion of wood of different breeds:
|Type of wood (humidity not more than 20%)||Calorific value, kWh/kg||Specific density of firewood, kg/m3||Volume density, kg/dm3||Gorenje temperature, °C|
Let’s consider an example of calculating the volume of the loading chamber of a wood-burning boiler.
- boiler power 10 kW;
- the volume of one load should ensure the operation of the unit during the day;
- fuel — birch firewood, length of logs 0.60÷0.65 m;
- wood moisture content is 20%.
Country house heating options: boiler selection. Advantages and disadvantages of water heating from a wood-burning stove. Features of solid fuel, gas, electric units: description and prices.
When burning 1 kg of birch firewood, 4.2 kW of thermal energy is released. The specified power (10 kW) will be provided by burning 2.4 kg of firewood per hour (10/4.2 = 2.381).
A cubic meter of birch firewood weighs 650 kg. Hourly fuel consumption will be ≈ 0.004 m3/h (2.4/650 = 0.0037).
The weight of the bookmark that the grate with the nozzle must withstand is ≈ 60 kg (2.381×24 = 57.144).
Birch firewood does not fit tightly, so the volume of the bookmark will increase by 1.9 times — up to 0.008 m3 / h (0.004×1.9 = 0.0076).
According to the condition – loading 1 time in 24 hours, respectively, the fuel volume is 0.2 m3 (0.008×24 = 0.192).
If we take into account the length of the logs 0.6-0.65 m, then the optimal depth of the furnace will be 0.7 m.
Let’s take the height of the fuel tab 0.6 m. The width of the furnace 0.5 m (0, 2/0,7/0,6 = 0,476).
The working size of the furnace of a wood—burning boiler for heating a house (area 80 m2, birch firewood) is 0,7×0,6×0,5 m. The overall dimensions of the finished boiler will double if we take into account the thickness of the cladding, the size of the heat exchanger, air and afterburning chamber, ash pan, flue gas removal channels.
Regulated and balanced gorenje will reduce the rate of natural flame propagation. The limited supply of primary and secondary air to the furnace will provide a lack of oxygen and extend the operating time of the homemade boiler by 1.8 times. Due to this, it is possible to reduce the estimated consumption of firewood and, consequently, the size of the unit.
Homemade boiler for long-term gorenje on wood with a vertical furnace (Bubafonya)
Boilers of long-term gorenje are mounted with their own hands from sheet steel (thickness 4-6 mm), thick-walled pipes (DN 300 mm) and cylindrical containers of suitable size. The simplest construction (“Slobozhanka” or “Bubafonya”) is assembled from a gas cylinder or barrel. The principle of the device copies the Baltic boiler “Stropuva”.
The capacity of the vertical furnace is used for top-down gorenje of firewood. The process is accompanied by a uniform compaction of the loading, the release and afterburning of wood gases, and the removal of combustion products into the chimney.Gorenje.
The primary air is supplied to the gorenje mirror via a vertical pipe. A static or telescopic structure is mounted in the upper wall of the boiler. The axis of the piston passes through the center of the cylindrical furnace. The gap between the collar and the primary air supply pipe is made out with a welded rim, which provides a free stroke of the rod and minimal air intake into the air chamber for afterburning wood gases.
The combustion of pyrolysis gases increases the efficiency of the boiler. The flap cover at the top of the pipe regulates the air intake. A disk with blades is welded from below, which dissect the air flow in the gorenje zone. The material for the distributor is selected taking into account the heat capacity. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the size of the furnace.
Structural proportions of the Bubafonya boiler:
- the optimal case diameter is 300÷800 mm;
- the height of the boiler is in the range of 3÷5 diameters;
- wall thickness 4÷6 mm;
- the diameter of the disc is less than the cross section of the combustion chamber by 10%;
- the thickness of the disc is inversely proportional to the diameter (a heavy pancake will push through the burning zone and extinguish the flame, a light one will lead to the effect of reverse gorenje gorenje);
- curved blades form a directional turbulent air flow for the combustion of pyrolysis gases;
- the diameter of the air supply pipe is taken as 0.55 of S (the cross-sectional area of the outlet pipe of the chimney);
- the gap between the pipe and the collar does not exceed 2.5 mm;
- the height of the air intake pipe (in the lower position) rises above the collar by 150 mm.
The cross – sectional area of the flue pipe at the outlet of the long – burning boiler is determined by empirical formulas . Gorenje:
S = 1.75xN (m2), where
S is the cross—sectional area of the outlet pipe (cm2 or m2);
N — heat output of the boiler (kW/h);
1.75 is the coefficient obtained empirically (m2h/kW).
N = m*qw (kWh), where
m — mass of firewood of one load (kg);
qw is the specific heat transfer of firewood of a certain humidity (kW/kg).
The loading mass for homemade boilers of long-term burning on firewood is determined by the working volume of the furnace (Vk) and the specific weight of firewood (md).Gorenje:
m = Vk*md (kg), where
Vk = πD2/(4*ht) (dm3), where
ht is the height of the loading chamber.
Table 4. Balanced size of elements in the primary air distribution system for Bubafonya boiler:
|Diameter of the boiler furnace, mm||Disc thickness, mm||Height of the guide ribs of the air distributor, mm|
Pay attention! It is not possible to place a tubular heat exchanger in the combustion chamber. An external cylindrical body of a larger diameter or a structure that is built into the chimney is required.
The principle of operation and drawings of pyrolysis boilers with their own hands
Homemade pyrolysis units are installed for heating large-area houses. The design of the furnace, nozzle and smoke ducts complicates the assembly of homemade gas generators. Forced circulation of the coolant and air supply to gorenje mean the dependence of the boiler operation on external factors. A gate for the discharge of thermal energy and a jacket-type heat exchanger can reduce the risk of an emergency breakdown of the boiler.
The boiler body is welded from thick-walled (4÷5 mm) sheet steel. Loading of firewood is frontal. Thermal radiation is transmitted to the boiler vault, the side walls of the chamber and heats the air entering the gorenje. The density and tightness of the combustion chamber is provided by a shutter with a reflector and a rotary bolt on the loading and ash hatches. Air is forced into the combustion chamber by a fan.
The jacket of the heat exchanger completely covers the furnace and partially the afterburning chamber of pyrolysis gases. The gap (3-5 cm) is filled with water. The heat exchange of the rear wall is increased: on one side the heat exchanger borders the furnace, the other wall of the jacket is in contact with the chimney channel. The heat exchanger built in along the flue gas flow lowers the temperature of the outgoing flue gases to 100oC. The internal volume of the boiler circuit takes 5-25% of the total capacity of the heating system.
The coolant supply pipe to the consumer’s system is located on top. The inset of the return pipeline is from below. Cooling of the return coolant below 65 ° C is dangerous by the precipitation of acid condensate on the walls of the heat exchanger, which destroys the steel. With a small boiler power, the temperature between the supply and return line is equalized by installing a bypass valve. The boiler circuit of a large house is complemented by an elevator unit and a circulation pump.
The grate in homemade boilers of long-term combustion serves as a support for fuel loading. Gorenje grate in homemade boilers of long-term combustion. Red-hot firewood lies on the grates, overlaid with chamotte. The nozzles in the grate body serve as a nozzle through which the combustible gas enters the fuel burnout zone.
Ashes and ashes wake up in the ash pan. Low-power boilers, with a uniform distribution of the heat load over the mirror, are suitable for standard cast iron grates.
The combustion products enter the channels and exit the boiler through the chimney neck (the formula for the cross-sectional area of the chimney neck is given in the example above). The adjusting gate of the chimney is opened if necessary.
The design allows additional fuel loading without completely extinguishing the boiler or forced discharge of thermal energy when electricity is cut off. The incandescent wood gas leaves the furnace bypassing the afterburning chamber and flue ducts.
The section and height of the chimney provides for the operation of a non-volatile homemade boiler on natural draft. The normal thrust of the pyrolysis boiler will be provided by the height of the chimney 6 m.
The data obtained are reflected on a large-scale drawing of a long-burning boiler with their own hands, according to which the volume and approximate amount for the purchase of consumables are determined.Gorenje
Important! If you cannot figure out the calculation of the boiler parameters yourself, then you should seek the help of professionals. Specialized Internet resources offer drawings for the manufacture of a pyrolysis boiler of long-term gorenje with their own hands. Video tutorials, with detailed explanations of the installation, are attached to the set of technical documentation.
Installation of wood-burning boilers in the heating system
Independent production of the boiler implies the availability of skills and experience in the production of welding, electrical and plumbing work. Knowledge of physics, heat engineering, materials science, rules of installation of heating systems will be useful.
It is necessary to observe the techniques and methods of safety. To assemble the boiler, you need an equipped room and a tool.
Material for the manufacture of pyrolysis boiler:
- 6, 5 and 4 mm thick sheet steel (furnace, heat exchanger jacket and housing);
- corner with sides of shelves 50 mm (frame stiffeners);
- steel pipe (strapping of the heat exchanger with the heating system);
- a suitable-sized cast-iron grate or a round rod with a diameter of 20 mm;
- fireclay brick;
- centrifugal fan;
- ready-made doors with reflector, mounting, handle and lock;
- safety group (temperature sensor, pressure gauge).
The welded parts are marked with chalk (connection point, part number, dimensions). Specialized organizations offer services for cutting material at the place of its purchase.
Tools for making a boiler:
- dc welding machine;
- electrodes (diameter 3÷5 mm);
- electric drill;
- angle grinders (for large 230 mm and small 125 mm circle);
- caliper, tape measure, level.
The boiler assembly begins with the inner housing. The quality of the welds should ensure the strength and density of the structure, which is in direct contact with the coolant.
Installation of boilers for long-term gorenje on firewood with their own hands
The pyrolysis boiler for an autonomous heating system is located in a separate specially adapted room, protected from fires. The boiler room is equipped with a supply ventilation system. The unit must be removed from the walls at a distance of at least 20 cm.
The standard weight value for homemade boilers of long—term gorenje on wood is 250 kg /m2. Compliance with the condition allows the installation of the unit on a flat stable surface without a foundation. The area of the installation site is carried out for the projection of the unit body by 15 cm (in front of the furnace door 30 cm).
The floor is covered with asbestos or basalt cardboard, (thickness 4-6 mm). A sheet of galvanized roofing iron (thickness 2 mm) is placed on top. Direct contact of the floor with the body is excluded by supporting structures — boiler legs.
The surface of the chimney must be covered with thermal insulation. Insulation will prevent a sharp temperature drop and the formation of condensation in the chimney. The thickness of the insulation layer depends on the temperature of the outgoing flue gases. It is advisable to use a sandwich pipe made of stainless steel, resistant to aggressive environments. In the absence of natural traction, a smoke pump is installed.
The aesthetics of handicraft production is inferior to the design of factory models, but the self-assembled unit meets the requirements of a specific heating system. Do not forget that the production of a long-gorenje boiler according to ready-made drawings (video) with your own hands will reduce the cost of its arrangement by at least 2 times.