Artificial decorative stone: making at home and laying
Artificial decorative stone is a common building material that is characterized by high performance and versatility. It is used for lining internal and external work surfaces. Such material can be made independently at home. This article will tell you about the advantages of artificial stone, the features of its production and laying.
What is artificial stone for decoration?
To date, the range of stone for wall decoration is very wide. It can be easily purchased in hardware stores and markets. If necessary, this finishing material can be made with your own hands. The industrial production of such bricks is very similar to manual, since both cases involve the use of special injection molds.
Different materials are used for its manufacture. The most common of these are concrete, gypsum and acrylic. For the subsequent processing of the stone, various technologies can be used: firing, glazing, etc. Liquid decorative brick, which has the appearance of an uncured composition, is very popular. You can also purchase or make yourself a flexible kind of artificial stone.
To finish the exterior surfaces, it is customary to use special plates that are characterized by low porosity and resistance to low temperatures. In turn, the stone for interior wall decoration has a lower weight, which contributes to its laying.
The environmental properties of this cladding material depend on which components were used in its production. For example, cement and gypsum differ in natural properties, and their structure promotes the penetration of air and moisture.
Useful information! If the composition of the decorative stone includes acrylic, it is not recommended to cover the surfaces located in the immediate vicinity of heating devices. This is due to the fact that this material, when heated, releases harmful chemical compounds that can cause harm to human health.
Artificial stone from the manufacturer has an acceptable cost, which undoubtedly makes it more popular among consumers than natural. If you choose a high-quality material or use the right components in its manufacture, then it will not be inferior to natural cladding.
Advantages and disadvantages of artificial stone for interior wall decoration
The price of decorative stone per square meter ranges from 600 to 1500 rubles. The cost of finished products from the manufacturer depends on many factors, namely: composition, texture, color, etc.
The use of unnatural decorative stone for walls, obtained independently, allows you to save money, as well as perform the necessary pattern or solid laying without any difficulties. Such material has other positive qualities, which it is recommended to pay attention to.
First of all, an artificial stone can be made independently in the same place where its laying will take place. This eliminates transportation costs. Such a facing material is characterized by a small thickness and low weight, since it most often looks like thin plates. Due to this, the total weight of the structure is significantly reduced.
Decorative stone of unnatural origin is distinguished by good strength characteristics (especially if it has undergone additional processing). If necessary, you can make an artificial stone of any color. To do this, the appropriate pigments are added to the mixture.
The shape of the interior stone can be different. You can independently produce both straight plates and plates with arbitrary dimensions. This property is very important, as it allows you to make facing elements that are ideally suited for the installation site.
The form for such decorative bricks can be purchased or made independently. In the construction market, you can easily buy products with a very different texture (smooth, embossed). It is worth noting that special polymer additives can be added to the composition of the mixture to obtain such a lining material. They allow you to make a flexible stone, which will allow you to change its shape even after laying.
From the point of view of decorative properties, artificial material is more acceptable. With its help, it is possible to perform cladding not only of walls, but also of interior elements such as fireplaces, stoves, etc. However, in the latter case, it is necessary to choose a material with refractory qualities. Decorative stone decoration can be used to transform the appearance of the arches. Photos of such arc-shaped structures can easily be found on the Internet.
Useful information! Due to its resistance to moisture, it can be used to organize an ornament or a solid structure in bathrooms. But in this case, it is recommended to pay attention to the composition of artificial stone.
The material, made with your own hands, does not need special care and can become a decoration of any interior. However, like any other product, artificial brick has some negative sides. For example, a wild stone has a rather large mass. The surface for laying it must have high strength and endurance. In addition, the products can have a rather complex, heterogeneous shape, which complicates the selection of individual blocks during installation.
However, the walls of wild stone can become an interior decoration of any room. It is equally well suited for both classic and modern style. In order to decide on the choice of material, you need to pay attention to the photo of the wild stone, since there are many varieties of it.
Overview of types of artificial stone for wall cladding
Such a building material is classified according to two main parameters, namely: the method of preparation and composition. Depending on these criteria , decorative artificial bricks are divided into:
Ceramic. A stone made of this material is produced in several stages, and also undergoes special heat treatment (firing). Independent production of such cladding is a rather complicated procedure, so it is a rarity. For production on an industrial scale, a fairly large area and a large consumption of electrical energy are required.
Plaster. One of the types of decorative stone, which is very popular in the modern construction market. It is carried out through the use of special molds and casting technology. For manufacturing at home, as a rule, it is this kind of decorative brick that is used. However, the facing material made of gypsum is not resistant to low temperatures. Therefore, it can only be used for finishing interior surfaces in rooms whose temperature is not lower than +18 ° C.
Concrete. This kind of decorative artificial stone, depending on the components, is divided into two types. The first one includes ingredients such as cement and sand. It has a slightly higher cost than gypsum, but is also suitable for forming at home. Cement-sand facing material is resistant to low temperatures.
The second type of concrete stone is called monumental. The method of obtaining such products is called free molding. Thanks to this method, artificial boulders are produced for garden decoration, as well as whole concrete slabs.
Polyester. This kind of finishing stone for walls includes special mineral fillers. They differ in that they are able to transition to a solid state under the influence of high temperatures.
A stone containing polyester resin is similar in composition to acrylic analogues. It has good mechanical properties and by this indicator surpasses even facing elements made of natural, natural materials.
Pay attention! Polyester resin is a fairly cheap product, so the cost of the finished product is small.
Among the disadvantages of such a building material, its specific smell should be noted. Over time, it wears off, but it is felt for a long time after installation.
Polyester stone is not suitable for making with your own hands, since the technology of its production is too complex. The process of forming products takes place in a vacuum under the influence of very high temperatures.
Gypsum tile for brick: the specifics of laying and operation
Methods of laying. Features of working with various bases. How to make gypsum tiles with your own hands.
Acrylic. It is made by casting. It turns into a solid state without the use of high temperatures, therefore it belongs to decorative facing materials of cold curing. It has a presentable appearance. For clarity, it is recommended to study the photo of artificial stone for interior wall decoration, made on an acrylic basis.
The process of forming an acrylic stone implies the presence of the same conditions as for the gypsum type. It differs in temperature plasticity, so there is a possibility of changing the shape of the finished material. Moreover, this does not affect its quality characteristics.
Liquid. A special kind of decorative artificial stone produced using a gel coating (gelcoat). The features of the liquid stone manufacturing technology affect the mechanical properties of finished products. It is also worth noting that cast decorative tiles are more resistant to temperature changes and moisture than liquid ones.
How to make a mold for artificial stone with your own hands
The matrix for casting this decorative finishing material will not be difficult to purchase in a specialized store. To save money, you can make such a template yourself. Another common reason for making a mold for decorative stone with your own hands is the lack of the necessary variety of facing material on sale.
As a basis for the matrix, as a rule, ordinary samples of decorative tiles are used. Sometimes the texture of the template is created with the help of natural materials, which include not only natural stones. For example, templates made as an imitation of wood patterns are very popular.
There are two types of forms:
In the first case, the manufacturing procedure is less complicated. This is due to the fact that homogeneous matrices are smaller in size and do not require significant expenditure of silicone material. In turn, complex shapes allow you to produce several ready-made tiles at once, which significantly speeds up the process. It is these matrices that are recommended to be used for the manufacture of artificial stone on the wall.
Be that as it may, the formwork will require a wooden box that can be made with your own hands. Sometimes cardboard boxes are used for these purposes. When selecting or manufacturing the formwork, it is necessary to remember one important rule: the template should be designed a little larger than the original sample of the stone both in width (10-15 mm) and height (25-30 mm). This will allow you to achieve the necessary clearance between the products.
To perform the form itself, you will need a suitable material. To do this, you can use a silicone sealing compound or polyurethane. And there are also special sealants that consist of two ingredients and are sold ready-made.
How to make Artificial Stone: Silicone mold
Silicone compounds for sealing can be easily purchased at the construction market or in a specialized store. As a rule, this mixture is sold in tubes or buckets. After the manufacture of the formwork, it is necessary to take care of the lubrication of its walls. For this purpose, you can use a regular solidol.
Next, you need to take the initial sample, according to which the template will be executed, and place it at the bottom of the formwork. As mentioned above, you can use ordinary tile, stone or wood as it. Then solidol is also applied to this sample. The fatty substance will allow you to easily separate the matrix from the product and will not allow you to spoil the shape pattern.
Pay attention! If a plaster element is used as a sample for the stencil, then ordinary lubrication is not enough. Before laying in the formwork, it is recommended to cover it with at least two layers of varnish. It is recommended to start performing the matrix only after the varnish has completely solidified.
At the next stage, a soap solution is made. It is needed to lubricate the tools (brush and spatula) that will be used in the distribution of silicone.
The silicone sealant should be evenly distributed over the entire surface of the facing sample. During the formation of the matrix from this material, it is necessary to ensure that air sinuses do not form.
After filling the formwork with silicone, you can start leveling its surface. For this purpose, a second tool is used – a spatula. Then the mold for making decorative stone is left for a while. This will allow the sealant to solidify in the formwork and acquire the desired shape of the sample.
It is worth noting that the longer the matrix is formed, the better it will turn out. Its operational life will also depend on this. The approximate rate of silicone solidification is 2 mm per day. Thus, taking into account the thickness of the mold, you can easily calculate the time for which you need to leave the stencil. After the matrix is ready, it should be separated from the formwork and the artificial stone sample.
Even a pre-lubricated mold is quite difficult to detach from the rest of the elements, so it is recommended to slightly trim the contact points. If after removing the matrix there are shells on its surface, then this problem is solved with the help of an additional silicone composition. This is how a template is made for making artificial stone. Photos of ready-made stencils will help you in their manufacture.
How to make an artificial decorative stone from gypsum
To obtain ready-made decorative products, first of all it is necessary to figure out how to make plaster at home. Before mixing such a material, it is desirable to immediately determine its volume. This is due to the fact that gypsum dough has a high rate of solidification. Therefore, its number should correspond to the number of forms. Let’s consider which components are used to produce a gypsum mixture:
Coloring powder is not used in all cases, but only when it is necessary to get decorative stones on the wall of a certain color. The process of mixing the composition itself is not complicated.
First, you need to pour water into a pre-prepared tank. Then you can start adding gypsum powder. The proportions may be different, but it is recommended that the amount of water is approximately 0.6 of the volume of the main component. Sand allows you to increase the strength of the future finishing material, so it is advised to use it in any case. It should be no more than 10% of the total mass of the mixture.
Useful information! It is recommended to use gypsum and acrylic products as a facing stone for interior decoration. In turn, it is best to make concrete elements for outdoor work.
The amount of pigment can be different (from 2 to 6%). It is selected depending on what color it is necessary to get a decorative tile. It is recommended to carry out trial mixes of a small amount of gypsum in advance to determine the shade.
To lubricate the mold, as a rule, a substance is used that is made of turpentine and wax. The first component should occupy at least 70% of the volume, and the second – the remaining 30%.
After adding the last component to the mixture, it is distributed into molds and leveled with a spatula. The technology of artificial stone production may include another stage – vibration treatment. Due to this, the performance characteristics of the future tile are significantly increased. It is desirable to carry out such treatment immediately after laying the mixture in the matrix.
Then you need to wait 15 minutes and pull the formed brick out of the stencil. The final stage will be its drying in the open air. It is strongly not recommended to heat-treat such products, since gypsum is not resistant to high temperatures.
How to make a decorative stone with your own hands from concrete
For the manufacture of concrete finishing products, forms made of polyurethane or plastic are most often used. Let’s consider what an artificial stone of this type is made of:
- polymer resin;
The proportions for making artificial stone at home from concrete can be different. First you need to mix the above components. The proportions of cement and sand in this case are 1:3. At the next stage, it is necessary to add water in such an amount that the consistency of the mixture reaches the state of thick sour cream. To give the cement mortar the necessary color, a small amount of pigment is used (2.5% of the total mass of the composition).
Now the resulting composition is distributed according to stencils. At this stage, it is very important not to make a mistake. The solution should fill the mold no more than half, so that there is enough space for the reinforcing component. Often, to strengthen the strength qualities of decorative tiles, a metal net is placed on top of cement. Then it needs to be filled with the remaining amount of solution.
Then it is necessary to compress the composition in the molds by vibration. After vibration compaction, it is necessary to wait at least 24 hours for the solution in the stencils to harden to the required state.
How to make an artificial stone with your own hands from acrylic
For the manufacture of acrylic decorative products, an appropriate resin and a special hardener will be required. Let’s consider what other tools and materials will be needed in the manufacture of artificial stone from these materials:
- electric drill (for mixing components into a homogeneous mixture);
- copolymer powder;
- ready-made or homemade lubricant.
Pay attention! The use of an acrylic base also allows you to make artificial marble with your own hands. Thanks to the combination of polyester resin with mineral crumbs and coloring compounds, you can get very beautiful elements for wall decoration.
First of all, to make a decorative acrylic stone, you will need to mix a polymer resin with a hardener. The proportion of these components in this case is 5:1. It is important to remember that after obtaining a mixture of these ingredients, its amount should correspond to 25% of the total volume of the compound.
Next, you need to add a filler and a coloring pigment to the acrylic mixture, which will take up the remaining 75% of the weight. As the first, any mineral crumb (for example, granite) can be used. The texture of the future facing material depends on its size. The color of the binding acrylic mass will give a pre-selected pigment. The amount of dye in this case is 2-6% of the total volume of the mixture.
To get a decorative brick with your own hands, you will need to fill the matrices with an acrylic solution and wait about 24 hours. After this time, you can safely remove the finished tiles.
Liquid stone with your own hands: gelcoat manufacturing technology
Of course, cast artificial stones have better physical properties, but liquid ones have one advantage. Thanks to gelcoat, it becomes possible to produce complex, in terms of shape, products. Such material can be performed independently at home.
The components required to make such a facing material are quite expensive. Today there are two simple technologies for making artificial stone of this type:
- creation of the facial composition;
- mixing of the primer solution.
These methods differ from each other not only in composition, but also in the percentage of filler. For the primer mixture, you will need to take 20% gelcoat (of the total mass of the solution). It is necessary to add another ingredient – microcalcite, the proportion of which is 73%. Then 7% of the accelerator and 1% of the solidification substance are mixed with the above components.
In turn, the facial composition will have to spend exactly 2 times more gelcoat, namely 40%. The proportion of accelerator and hardener in this case is also 7 and 1%. Mineral filler and coloring matter occupy the remaining mass of the solution. Solidification of the liquid decorative stone takes place in 1 day.
Features of decorative stone painting
To date, there are two common ways that allow you to change the color of a decorative stone made with your own hands. The addition of special coloring agents is the most common method. Another option is to apply paint to the finished finishing material. Some people perform this procedure after laying the facing products.
If everything is clear with the first method, then it is recommended to pay attention to the second one. Special iron oxide compositions are used for painting finished stones for wall decoration. Their cost fully corresponds to the quality, which is quite acceptable.
Useful information! Experts recommend applying iron oxide paints using a special pneumatic spray gun. In case of its absence, you can use a regular brush, but this will complicate the work.
There are several rules that should be followed when performing this procedure. For example, the color of an artificial decorative stone should be lighter than the seams. It is strictly not recommended to use more than 3 shades for painting.
Decorative brick wall decoration: preparatory stage
Before you start laying decorative stone, you must first prepare the wall surface. It should be not only strong, but also smooth, so that there are no problems with gluing facing products. The permissible deviation in this case is 1 mm per 1 m of the wall. Masters advise to adhere to this rule regardless of the type of finishing material.
Before you start finishing the walls with decorative bricks, you need to remove all the old facing materials from them. These include the following: wallpaper, paint and plaster. To eliminate them, you can use a conventional spatula. This tool especially helps when removing old wallpaper and paint.
Let’s consider what tools and materials will be required for laying decorative bricks:
- the tank in which the adhesive solution will be located;
- a spatula for applying glue to the wall;
- crosses for seams;
- building level;
- a mixture for grouting joints;
- hydrophobic composition and a tool for its application (for example, a roller).
After purchasing all the necessary tools and materials, the walls should be plastered. It is important to remember that in this case it may be necessary to install a reinforcing mesh that will strengthen the base for decorative tiles. However, such a measure is necessary only when the weight of the artificial stone is too large. For laying thin decorative tiles under the stone, there is no need to organize reinforcement. But you will have to eliminate the defects of the walls in any case.
It will be necessary to apply a primer composition to the wall surface. This will strengthen the surface and enhance the effect of adhesion of the facing tiles to it. Experts advise to select a special primer for plaster.
Preparation of glue and drawing a sketch on the wall
A stone of this type requires the use of a special adhesive composition. To prepare such a construction mixture, you will need to use a ready-made powder and mix it in a certain amount of water. As a rule, along with the glue there is a detailed instruction containing not only the proportions of the components, but also the time it takes to make it. In turn, the laying of decorative stone for exterior decoration is best done on cement mortar.
For the installation of decorative unnatural stone, you can also use liquid nails. This mixture is able to provide the necessary adhesion to the wall. Some craftsmen even use cement mortar for indoor work. However, before applying to the wall, PVA glue is pre-added to it.
Before you start laying decorative tiles with your own hands, you need to sketch a sketch on paper. It should take into account the area of the part of the wall allocated for the brick, as well as the following nuances: the presence or absence of a seam and the number of artificial stones. The best option is to transfer the sketch directly to the wall. Thus, the possibility of an error when laying this facing material is practically eliminated.
How to glue a decorative stone: instructions
Laying such a facing material is not particularly difficult, but requires appropriate care and accuracy. First of all, thick glue is applied to the wall. Its number should correspond to the width of the first row. After applying the adhesive composition, it is necessary to start laying the stone. To do this, each element is first applied to the wall, and then pressed down. The excess solution released after pressing on the brick is simply removed from the wall.
Useful information! If the laying of the stone for the house is done butt-to-butt, then you need to lean each next element tightly against the previous one. To organize the necessary seam, there are special delimiting elements – crosses. If you need to organize a large distance between the facing products, then you can use drywall.
The best starting point is the corner of the room. From it it is necessary to lay the tile gradually, one row at a time. It is important to remember that it is better to glue the tile from above, moving down. This will avoid getting the coupling mixture on the already laid elements. For cutting whole stones, as a rule, a conventional grinder is used.
Some varieties of this decorative material are best glued to the wall with an offset. This simple action will allow you to achieve a more realistic result when finishing with artificial stone. Photos of various stylistic solutions will help you decide on the choice of colors and textures.
After laying this finishing material, it is necessary to wait a few days. During this time, the solution will completely harden and it will be possible to eliminate auxiliary elements. It is also advisable to prepare a grout solution in advance. It is made of cement adhesive mastic and pigment substance. It is applied in two ways: with a special gun or with a sponge.
At the last stage, it is necessary to wipe the tiles to eliminate the particles of the solution that got on them during installation. You can apply a hydrophobic composition to such a stone. Its use is recommended in cases where artificial material is placed in rooms with high humidity. After application, it forms a strong film on the surface of the cladding.
The technology is very similar to the process of laying natural stone for interior decoration. However, there are differences, since the structure and weight of artificial material still differ from similar indicators of natural products.
The care of decorative elements of this type is not difficult. All you need to eliminate dust and other contaminants is to wipe the tile with a damp sponge.
Thus, artificial decorative stone can be purchased on the construction market or made independently. The process of its formation is not complicated. But if you are not confident in your own abilities, it is better to buy ready-made material.